Background: Risk factors established during adolescence affect health outcomes in adulthood, although little is known about how adolescent health risk behaviours (HRBs) affect testicular development and reproductive health. Objectives: To assess prevalence of HRBs among last year high school students; to describe the most prevalent andrological disorders in this cohort; to explore HRBs associated with andrological disorders and investigate factors possibly associated with impaired testicular development in puberty. Materials and methods: The Amico-Andrologo Survey is a permanent nationwide surveillance programme conducted by the Italian Society of Andrology and Sexual Medicine and supported by the Ministry of Health. A nationally representative survey of final-year male high school students was conducted using a validated structured interview (n = 10124) and medical examination (n = 3816). Results: Smoking (32.6%), drinking (80.6%) and use of illegal drugs (46.5%) are common in adolescence. 16.6% of subjects were overweight, 3.1% were underweight and 2.3% were obese. Among sexually active students (60.3%), unprotected sex was very common (48.3%). Only 11.6% had been treated for andrological disorders, despite an abnormal clinical examination in 34.6%. Bilateral testicular hypotrophy (14.0%), varicocoele (27.1%) and phimosis (7.1%) were the most prevalent disorders; 5.1% complained of premature ejaculation and 4.7% had an STI. Underweight and heavy alcohol or drug use were associated with testicular hypotrophy. HRBs emerged as significant predictors of testicular hypotrophy, explaining up to 9.6% of its variance. Limitations include risk of selection bias for voluntary physical examination and recall bias for the self-compiled questionnaire. Discussion: There is an emerging global adverse trend of HRBs in male high school students. A significant proportion of adolescent males with unsuspected andrological disorders engage in behaviours that could impair testicular development. Conclusion: Greater attention to the prevention of andrological health in adolescence is needed.

Risk behaviours and alcohol in adolescence are negatively associated with testicular volume: results from the Amico-Andrologo survey / Gianfrilli, D.; Ferlin, A.; Isidori, A. M.; Garolla, A.; Maggi, M.; Pivonello, R.; Santi, D.; Sansone, A.; Balercia, G.; Granata, A. R. M.; Sinisi, A.; Lanfranco, F.; Pasqualetti, P.; Foresta, C.; Lenzi, A.. - In: ANDROLOGY. - ISSN 2047-2919. - 7:6(2019), pp. 769-777. [10.1111/andr.12659]

Risk behaviours and alcohol in adolescence are negatively associated with testicular volume: results from the Amico-Andrologo survey

Gianfrilli D.;Ferlin A.;Isidori A. M.;Garolla A.;Pivonello R.;Sansone A.;Pasqualetti P.;Lenzi A.
2019

Abstract

Background: Risk factors established during adolescence affect health outcomes in adulthood, although little is known about how adolescent health risk behaviours (HRBs) affect testicular development and reproductive health. Objectives: To assess prevalence of HRBs among last year high school students; to describe the most prevalent andrological disorders in this cohort; to explore HRBs associated with andrological disorders and investigate factors possibly associated with impaired testicular development in puberty. Materials and methods: The Amico-Andrologo Survey is a permanent nationwide surveillance programme conducted by the Italian Society of Andrology and Sexual Medicine and supported by the Ministry of Health. A nationally representative survey of final-year male high school students was conducted using a validated structured interview (n = 10124) and medical examination (n = 3816). Results: Smoking (32.6%), drinking (80.6%) and use of illegal drugs (46.5%) are common in adolescence. 16.6% of subjects were overweight, 3.1% were underweight and 2.3% were obese. Among sexually active students (60.3%), unprotected sex was very common (48.3%). Only 11.6% had been treated for andrological disorders, despite an abnormal clinical examination in 34.6%. Bilateral testicular hypotrophy (14.0%), varicocoele (27.1%) and phimosis (7.1%) were the most prevalent disorders; 5.1% complained of premature ejaculation and 4.7% had an STI. Underweight and heavy alcohol or drug use were associated with testicular hypotrophy. HRBs emerged as significant predictors of testicular hypotrophy, explaining up to 9.6% of its variance. Limitations include risk of selection bias for voluntary physical examination and recall bias for the self-compiled questionnaire. Discussion: There is an emerging global adverse trend of HRBs in male high school students. A significant proportion of adolescent males with unsuspected andrological disorders engage in behaviours that could impair testicular development. Conclusion: Greater attention to the prevention of andrological health in adolescence is needed.
2019
adolescence; alcohol; andrological health; health risk behaviours; prevention; testicular development
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Risk behaviours and alcohol in adolescence are negatively associated with testicular volume: results from the Amico-Andrologo survey / Gianfrilli, D.; Ferlin, A.; Isidori, A. M.; Garolla, A.; Maggi, M.; Pivonello, R.; Santi, D.; Sansone, A.; Balercia, G.; Granata, A. R. M.; Sinisi, A.; Lanfranco, F.; Pasqualetti, P.; Foresta, C.; Lenzi, A.. - In: ANDROLOGY. - ISSN 2047-2919. - 7:6(2019), pp. 769-777. [10.1111/andr.12659]
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11573/1380983
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