Persistent and excessive cytokine production is a hallmark of autoimmune diseases and may play a role in disease pathogenesis and amplification. Therefore, cytokine neutralization is a useful therapeutic strategy to treat immune-mediated conditions. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNA molecules that regulate gene expression in diverse biological processes. Altered miRNA levels are observed in most autoimmune diseases and are recognized to influence autoimmunity through different mechanisms. Here, we review the impact of altered miRNA levels on the expression of cytokines that play a relevant pathogenic role in autoimmunity, namely primary pro-inflammatory cytokines, the IL-17/IL-23 axis, type I interferons and IL-10. Regulation can be either "direct" on the target cytokine, or "indirect," meaning that one given miRNA post-transcriptionally regulates the expression of a protein that in turn influences the level of the cytokine. In addition, miRNAs associated with extracellular vesicles can regulate cytokine production in neighboring cells, either post-transcriptionally or via the stimulation of innate immune RNA-sensors, such as Toll-like receptors. Because of their tremendous potential as physiological and pathological regulators, miRNAs are in the limelight as promising future biopharmaceuticals. Thus, these studies may lead in the near future to the design and testing of therapeutic miRNAs as next generation drugs to target pathogenic cytokines in autoimmunity.

Cytokine targeting by miRNAs in autoimmune diseases / Salvi, V.; Gianello, V.; Tiberio, L.; Sozzani, S.; Bosisio, D.. - In: FRONTIERS IN IMMUNOLOGY. - ISSN 1664-3224. - 10:JAN(2019). [10.3389/fimmu.2019.00015]

Cytokine targeting by miRNAs in autoimmune diseases

Sozzani S.;
2019

Abstract

Persistent and excessive cytokine production is a hallmark of autoimmune diseases and may play a role in disease pathogenesis and amplification. Therefore, cytokine neutralization is a useful therapeutic strategy to treat immune-mediated conditions. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNA molecules that regulate gene expression in diverse biological processes. Altered miRNA levels are observed in most autoimmune diseases and are recognized to influence autoimmunity through different mechanisms. Here, we review the impact of altered miRNA levels on the expression of cytokines that play a relevant pathogenic role in autoimmunity, namely primary pro-inflammatory cytokines, the IL-17/IL-23 axis, type I interferons and IL-10. Regulation can be either "direct" on the target cytokine, or "indirect," meaning that one given miRNA post-transcriptionally regulates the expression of a protein that in turn influences the level of the cytokine. In addition, miRNAs associated with extracellular vesicles can regulate cytokine production in neighboring cells, either post-transcriptionally or via the stimulation of innate immune RNA-sensors, such as Toll-like receptors. Because of their tremendous potential as physiological and pathological regulators, miRNAs are in the limelight as promising future biopharmaceuticals. Thus, these studies may lead in the near future to the design and testing of therapeutic miRNAs as next generation drugs to target pathogenic cytokines in autoimmunity.
2019
IFN; IL-17/IL-23; IL-6; MS; psoriasis; RA; SLE; TNF-α
01 Pubblicazione su rivista::01g Articolo di rassegna (Review)
Cytokine targeting by miRNAs in autoimmune diseases / Salvi, V.; Gianello, V.; Tiberio, L.; Sozzani, S.; Bosisio, D.. - In: FRONTIERS IN IMMUNOLOGY. - ISSN 1664-3224. - 10:JAN(2019). [10.3389/fimmu.2019.00015]
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11573/1371552
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