Zoonotic dirofilarioses are mosquito-borne diseases due to several species of animal filarial worms present in many regions of the world. Dirofilaria immitis and D. repens are usual parasites of dogs and other carnivores that develop heartworm disease and subcutaneous dirofilariosis, respectively. Humans, unsuitable hosts, are occasionally infected, and develop abortive infections or syndromes due to migrating larvae that cause pulmonary nodules (mainly if the worm is D. immitis), and ocular pathologies or subcutaneous lesions (mainly if the worm is D. repens). These lesions always give rise to the suspicion of a tumour, so requiring, as primary measure, differential diagnosis. Dirofilariosis is easily diagnosed in dogs by microscopy/molecular methods, or by serology, whereas in humans it is possible only by microscopy/molecular methods applied to the worm surgically removed, due to the lack of reliable serological tests. Recent researches evidenced that most pathogenic filariae, dirofilariae included, harbour bacterial endosymbionts belonging to the genus Wolbachia as stable components of the body. Experimental infections suggested that the continuous release of bacterial antigens could stimulate the host immune response and even switch the response against Wolbachia rather than against the worm. Moreover, it has been hypothesised a possible role of these bacteria in the filariosis pathogenesis. Aim of the present study was to confirm in humans and dogs naturally infected by D. repens and D. immitis the hypothesis that also Wolbachia-derived proteins can be antigenic, to compare response patterns against Dirofilaria and Wolbachia antigens in suitable and unsuitable hosts, and to evaluate the possible use of an ELISA test to diagnose human dirofilariosis before surgery. To evaluate the antibody response against filarial polypeptides and Wolbachia surface protein we tested the sera of 86 dogs and 88 humans positive for the two dirofilariae, and showing different clinical status. The response against filarial polypeptides was mainly observed in humans affected by D. repens (both ocular and abortive infections), and in dogs with chronic disease. As far the anti-Wolbachia response, it was evidenced mainly in dogs affected by heartworm occult disease and in humans with pulmonary nodules (coin lesions), so confirming, in natural infections, its relationship with severe pathology, and suggesting a possible diagnostic use of the test developed.
Dirofilaria and Wolbachia antigens to detect naturally acquired dirofilariosis in usual and occasional hosts / Gabrielli, Simona; Cancrini, G.. - In: INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ANTIMICROBIAL AGENTS. - ISSN 0924-8579. - ELETTRONICO. - 29(2007), pp. S315-S315.
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|Titolo:||Dirofilaria and Wolbachia antigens to detect naturally acquired dirofilariosis in usual and occasional hosts|
|Data di pubblicazione:||2007|
|Citazione:||Dirofilaria and Wolbachia antigens to detect naturally acquired dirofilariosis in usual and occasional hosts / Gabrielli, Simona; Cancrini, G.. - In: INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ANTIMICROBIAL AGENTS. - ISSN 0924-8579. - ELETTRONICO. - 29(2007), pp. S315-S315.|
|Appartiene alla tipologia:||04c Atto di convegno in rivista|