BACKGROUND: Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most lethal and aggressive malignant primary brain tumor in adults. After surgical resection of the tumor, the patient typically should be subjected to chemotherapy (temozolomide, TMZ) and concomitant radiotherapy. Since the TMZ treatment does not lead to complete remission and often develops resistance, the identification of efficacious therapeutics is strongly to pursue. Among the epigenetic players, the H3K27 methyltransferase (MT) EZH2 (enhancer of zeste homologue 2) has been found overexpressed or mutated in several human cancers including gliomas, and its overexpression is associated with poor outcome in GBM. Two EZH2 inhibitors (EZH2i), UNC1999 and GSK343, suppressed GBM growth in vitro and in vivo indicating that EZH2i can be potential drugs against GBM. RESULTS: Two new EZH2i, MC4040 and MC4041, were designed, prepared, and tested by us to determine their effects in primary GBM cell cultures. MC4040 and MC4041 displayed single-digit micromolar inhibition of EZH2, 10-fold less potency against EZH1, and no activity towards other MTs. In primary GBM cells as well as in U-87 GBM cells, the two compounds reduced H3K27me3 levels, and dose- and time-dependently impaired GBM cell viability without inducing apoptosis and arresting the cell cycle in the G0/G1 phase, with increased p21 and p27 levels. In combination with TMZ, MC4040 and MC4041 displayed stronger, but not additive, effects on cell viability. The potent clinical candidate as EZH2i tazemetostat, alone or in combination with TMZ, exhibited a similar potency of inhibition of GBM cell growth when compared to MC4040 and MC4041. At the molecular level, MC4040 and MC4041 reduced the VEGFR1/VEGF expression, reversed the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), and hampered cell migration and invasion attenuating the cancer malignant phenotype. Treatment of GBM cells with MC4040 and MC4041 also impaired the GBM pro-inflammatory phenotype, with a significant decrease of TGF-β, TNF-α, and IL-6, joined to an increase of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10. CONCLUSIONS: The two novel EZH2i MC4040 and MC4041 impaired primary GBM cell viability, showing even stronger effects in combination with TMZ. They also weakened the aggressive malignant phenotype by reducing angiogenesis, EMT, cell migration/invasion and inflammation, thus they may be considered potential candidates against GBM also for combination therapies.

Dissecting the role of novel EZH2 inhibitors in primary glioblastoma cell cultures: effects on proliferation, epithelial-mesenchymal transition, migration, and on the pro-inflammatory phenotype / Stazi, G.; Taglieri, L.; Nicolai, Alice; Romanelli, A.; Fioravanti, R.; Morrone, S.; Sabatino, M.; Ragno, R.; Taurone, S.; Nebbioso, M.; Carletti, R.; Artico, M.; Valente, S.; Scarpa, S.; Mai, A.. - In: CLINICAL EPIGENETICS. - ISSN 1868-7083. - 11:1(2019), pp. 1-17. [10.1186/s13148-019-0763-5]

Dissecting the role of novel EZH2 inhibitors in primary glioblastoma cell cultures: effects on proliferation, epithelial-mesenchymal transition, migration, and on the pro-inflammatory phenotype

Stazi G.
Primo
;
Taglieri L.
Secondo
;
NICOLAI, ALICE;Romanelli A.;Fioravanti R.;Morrone S.;Sabatino M.;Ragno R.;Taurone S.;Nebbioso M.;Carletti R.;Artico M.;Valente S.
;
Scarpa S.
Penultimo
;
Mai A.
Ultimo
2019

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most lethal and aggressive malignant primary brain tumor in adults. After surgical resection of the tumor, the patient typically should be subjected to chemotherapy (temozolomide, TMZ) and concomitant radiotherapy. Since the TMZ treatment does not lead to complete remission and often develops resistance, the identification of efficacious therapeutics is strongly to pursue. Among the epigenetic players, the H3K27 methyltransferase (MT) EZH2 (enhancer of zeste homologue 2) has been found overexpressed or mutated in several human cancers including gliomas, and its overexpression is associated with poor outcome in GBM. Two EZH2 inhibitors (EZH2i), UNC1999 and GSK343, suppressed GBM growth in vitro and in vivo indicating that EZH2i can be potential drugs against GBM. RESULTS: Two new EZH2i, MC4040 and MC4041, were designed, prepared, and tested by us to determine their effects in primary GBM cell cultures. MC4040 and MC4041 displayed single-digit micromolar inhibition of EZH2, 10-fold less potency against EZH1, and no activity towards other MTs. In primary GBM cells as well as in U-87 GBM cells, the two compounds reduced H3K27me3 levels, and dose- and time-dependently impaired GBM cell viability without inducing apoptosis and arresting the cell cycle in the G0/G1 phase, with increased p21 and p27 levels. In combination with TMZ, MC4040 and MC4041 displayed stronger, but not additive, effects on cell viability. The potent clinical candidate as EZH2i tazemetostat, alone or in combination with TMZ, exhibited a similar potency of inhibition of GBM cell growth when compared to MC4040 and MC4041. At the molecular level, MC4040 and MC4041 reduced the VEGFR1/VEGF expression, reversed the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), and hampered cell migration and invasion attenuating the cancer malignant phenotype. Treatment of GBM cells with MC4040 and MC4041 also impaired the GBM pro-inflammatory phenotype, with a significant decrease of TGF-β, TNF-α, and IL-6, joined to an increase of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10. CONCLUSIONS: The two novel EZH2i MC4040 and MC4041 impaired primary GBM cell viability, showing even stronger effects in combination with TMZ. They also weakened the aggressive malignant phenotype by reducing angiogenesis, EMT, cell migration/invasion and inflammation, thus they may be considered potential candidates against GBM also for combination therapies.
2019
EMT; epigenetics; EZH2; glioblastoma; histone methylation; inflammation
01 Pubblicazione su rivista::01a Articolo in rivista
Dissecting the role of novel EZH2 inhibitors in primary glioblastoma cell cultures: effects on proliferation, epithelial-mesenchymal transition, migration, and on the pro-inflammatory phenotype / Stazi, G.; Taglieri, L.; Nicolai, Alice; Romanelli, A.; Fioravanti, R.; Morrone, S.; Sabatino, M.; Ragno, R.; Taurone, S.; Nebbioso, M.; Carletti, R.; Artico, M.; Valente, S.; Scarpa, S.; Mai, A.. - In: CLINICAL EPIGENETICS. - ISSN 1868-7083. - 11:1(2019), pp. 1-17. [10.1186/s13148-019-0763-5]
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11573/1339079
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