BACKGROUND: Aedes mosquitoes are vectors of arboviral diseases of great relevance for public health. The recent outbreaks of dengue, Zika, chikungunya and the rapid worldwide spreading of Aedes albopictus emphasize the need for improvement of vector surveillance and control. Host antibody response to mosquito salivary antigens is emerging as a relevant additional tool to directly assess vector-host contact, monitor efficacy of control interventions and evaluate risk of arboviral transmission. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Groups of four BALB/c mice were immunized by exposure to bites of either Aedes albopictus or Aedes aegypti. The 34k2 salivary proteins from Ae. albopictus (al34k2) and Ae. aegypti (ae34k2) were expressed in recombinant form and Ae. albopictus salivary peptides were designed through B-cell epitopes prediction software. IgG responses to salivary gland extracts, peptides, al34k2 and ae34k2 were measured in exposed mice. Both al34k2 and ae34k2, with some individual and antigen-specific variation, elicited a clearly detectable antibody response in immunized mice. Remarkably, the two orthologous proteins showed very low level of immune cross-reactivity, suggesting they may eventually be developed as species-specific markers of host exposure. The al34k2 immunogenicity and the limited immune cross-reactivity to ae34k2 were confirmed in a single human donor hyperimmune to Ae. albopictus saliva. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our study shows that exposure to bites of Ae. albopictus or Ae. aegypti evokes in mice species-specific IgG responses to al34k2 or ae34k2, respectively. Deeper understanding of duration of antibody response and validation in natural conditions of human exposure to Aedes mosquitoes are certainly needed. However, our findings point to the al34k2 salivary protein as a promising potential candidate for the development of immunoassays to evaluate human exposure to Ae. albopictus. This would be a step forward in the establishment of a serological toolbox for the simultaneous assessment of human exposure to Aedes vectors and the pathogens they transmit.

Analysis in a murine model points to IgG responses against the 34k2 salivary proteins from Aedes albopictus and Aedes aegypti as novel promising candidate markers of host exposure to Aedes mosquitoes / Buezo Montero, Sara; Gabrieli, Paolo; Severini, Francesco; Picci, Leonardo; Di Luca, Marco; Forneris, Federico; Facchinelli, Luca; Ponzi, Marta; Lombardo, Fabrizio; Arcà, Bruno. - In: PLOS NEGLECTED TROPICAL DISEASES. - ISSN 1935-2735. - 13:10(2019), pp. 1-19. [10.1371/journal.pntd.0007806]

Analysis in a murine model points to IgG responses against the 34k2 salivary proteins from Aedes albopictus and Aedes aegypti as novel promising candidate markers of host exposure to Aedes mosquitoes

Buezo Montero, Sara
Primo
;
Lombardo, Fabrizio
Penultimo
;
Arcà, Bruno
Ultimo
2019

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Aedes mosquitoes are vectors of arboviral diseases of great relevance for public health. The recent outbreaks of dengue, Zika, chikungunya and the rapid worldwide spreading of Aedes albopictus emphasize the need for improvement of vector surveillance and control. Host antibody response to mosquito salivary antigens is emerging as a relevant additional tool to directly assess vector-host contact, monitor efficacy of control interventions and evaluate risk of arboviral transmission. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Groups of four BALB/c mice were immunized by exposure to bites of either Aedes albopictus or Aedes aegypti. The 34k2 salivary proteins from Ae. albopictus (al34k2) and Ae. aegypti (ae34k2) were expressed in recombinant form and Ae. albopictus salivary peptides were designed through B-cell epitopes prediction software. IgG responses to salivary gland extracts, peptides, al34k2 and ae34k2 were measured in exposed mice. Both al34k2 and ae34k2, with some individual and antigen-specific variation, elicited a clearly detectable antibody response in immunized mice. Remarkably, the two orthologous proteins showed very low level of immune cross-reactivity, suggesting they may eventually be developed as species-specific markers of host exposure. The al34k2 immunogenicity and the limited immune cross-reactivity to ae34k2 were confirmed in a single human donor hyperimmune to Ae. albopictus saliva. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our study shows that exposure to bites of Ae. albopictus or Ae. aegypti evokes in mice species-specific IgG responses to al34k2 or ae34k2, respectively. Deeper understanding of duration of antibody response and validation in natural conditions of human exposure to Aedes mosquitoes are certainly needed. However, our findings point to the al34k2 salivary protein as a promising potential candidate for the development of immunoassays to evaluate human exposure to Ae. albopictus. This would be a step forward in the establishment of a serological toolbox for the simultaneous assessment of human exposure to Aedes vectors and the pathogens they transmit.
File allegati a questo prodotto
File Dimensione Formato  
Buezo Montero_Analysis_2019.pdf

accesso aperto

Tipologia: Versione editoriale (versione pubblicata con il layout dell'editore)
Licenza: Creative commons
Dimensione 1.27 MB
Formato Adobe PDF
1.27 MB Adobe PDF Visualizza/Apri PDF

I documenti in IRIS sono protetti da copyright e tutti i diritti sono riservati, salvo diversa indicazione.

Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11573/1324515
Citazioni
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.pmc??? 3
  • Scopus 7
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.isi??? 7
social impact