This paper illustrates the development of a procedure based on the use of a low transition temperature mixture (LTTM) for the dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) of fungicides, insecticides and acaricides from surface waters. The LTTM preparation involves the heat-mixing of choline chloride and acetylsalicylic acid in a molar ratio 1:2 (ChCl(ASA)2). The resulting mixture appears as a clear viscous liquid at room-temperature, denser than water (1.20 ± 0.01 g mL-1). For its characterization, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) provided crucial evidence to classify it as a LTTM rather than as a deep eutectic solvent (DES) since it revealed an intense glass transition at -37 °C. Large-angle X-ray scattering (LAXS) confirmed the lack of any long-distance order. Due to the LTTM immiscibility with water, an evaluation study was carried out to test ChCl(ASA)2 as an effective alternative to the conventional chlorinated solvents for DLLME. To this end, 24 pesticides were used as model compounds, extracted from surface water samples (5 mL) and analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). The definitive procedure required the optimization of some key parameters such as volume of extracting solvent, type and volume of dispersing solvent, volume of the aqueous sample, LTTM dispersion procedure, and extraction time. Depending on pKa and logP values, recoveries ranged from 18 (for very polar compounds) to 96%, revealing that the ideal candidates for the extraction with ChCl(ASA)2 are neutral compounds with logP >2. After complete validation, the method was applied to analyze water samples from the River Tiber where dodine and dimetomorph were found at low μg L-1 concentration levels.

A low transition temperature mixture for the dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction of pesticides from surface waters / Tomai, Pierpaolo; Lippiello, Anna; D’Angelo, Paola; Persson, Ingmar; Martinelli, Andrea; Di Lisio, Valerio; Curini, Roberta; Fanali, Chiara; Gentili, Alessandra. - In: JOURNAL OF CHROMATOGRAPHY A. - ISSN 0021-9673. - (2019). [10.1016/j.chroma.2019.06.050]

A low transition temperature mixture for the dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction of pesticides from surface waters

Tomai, Pierpaolo;D’Angelo, Paola;Martinelli, Andrea;DI LISIO, VALERIO;Curini, Roberta;Gentili,Alessandra
2019

Abstract

This paper illustrates the development of a procedure based on the use of a low transition temperature mixture (LTTM) for the dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) of fungicides, insecticides and acaricides from surface waters. The LTTM preparation involves the heat-mixing of choline chloride and acetylsalicylic acid in a molar ratio 1:2 (ChCl(ASA)2). The resulting mixture appears as a clear viscous liquid at room-temperature, denser than water (1.20 ± 0.01 g mL-1). For its characterization, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) provided crucial evidence to classify it as a LTTM rather than as a deep eutectic solvent (DES) since it revealed an intense glass transition at -37 °C. Large-angle X-ray scattering (LAXS) confirmed the lack of any long-distance order. Due to the LTTM immiscibility with water, an evaluation study was carried out to test ChCl(ASA)2 as an effective alternative to the conventional chlorinated solvents for DLLME. To this end, 24 pesticides were used as model compounds, extracted from surface water samples (5 mL) and analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). The definitive procedure required the optimization of some key parameters such as volume of extracting solvent, type and volume of dispersing solvent, volume of the aqueous sample, LTTM dispersion procedure, and extraction time. Depending on pKa and logP values, recoveries ranged from 18 (for very polar compounds) to 96%, revealing that the ideal candidates for the extraction with ChCl(ASA)2 are neutral compounds with logP >2. After complete validation, the method was applied to analyze water samples from the River Tiber where dodine and dimetomorph were found at low μg L-1 concentration levels.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11573/1322356
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