Hazelnut and cocoa spread is an Italian product containing cocoa and hazelnut. Several epidemiological studies suggest that cocoa and hazelnuts cocoa exert beneficial cardiovascular effects. To investigate whether in smokers, hazelnut and cocoa spread elicits artery dilatation via down-regulation of oxidative stress. Flow-mediated dilatation (FMD), oxidative stress (as assessed by serum isoprostanes excretion, Nox2 activation and NO bioavailability) and antioxidant status [as assessed by vitamin E levels, plasma total polyphenols and H 2 O 2 breaking down activity (HBA)] were studied in 20 smokers in a crossover, single-blind study. Patients were randomly allocated to 60 g of Hazelnut and cocoa spread or 60 g of milk chocolate (≤ 35% cocoa). FMD, serum isoprostanes, Nox2 activation, NOx, vitamin E, HBA and total polyphenols were assessed at baseline and 2 h after chocolate ingestion. After Hazelnut and cocoa spread intake, FMD and NOx significantly increased (from 4.3 ± 2.8 to 8.0 ± 3.2%, p < 0.001 and from 23.1 ± 5.5 to 32.0 ± 12.6 µM, p = 0.016, respectively); conversely, serum isoprostanes and Nox2 activation significantly decreased (from 302.8 ± 59.8 to 240.7 ± 90.8 pmol/l, p = 0.03 and from 25 ± 4.4 to 22.6 ± 3.2, p = 0.03, respectively). After Hazelnut and cocoa spread intake, serum total polyphenols, vitamin E and HBA significantly increased (from 133.8 ± 49.7 to 202.5 ± 69.5 mg/l GAE, p = 0.001; from 3.56 ± 1.4 to 4.5 ± 1.0 μmol/mmol cholesterol, p = 0.002 and from 63.3 ± 13.2 to 74.2 ± 12.4%, p = 0.003, respectively). No changes in the above variables were observed after milk chocolate intake. A linear correlation analysis shows that Δ (expressed by difference of values between before and after chocolate intake) of FMD correlates with Δ of total polyphenols and Δ of vitamin E. This study shows that Hazelnut and cocoa spread improves FMD with a mechanism potentially involving downregulation of oxidative stress and eventually increased NO generation in smokers.

Hazelnut and cocoa spread improves flow-mediated dilatation in smokers / Loffredo, Lorenzo; Perri, Ludovica; Battaglia, Simona; Nocella, Cristina; Menichelli, Danilo; Cammisotto, Vittoria; Novo, Marta; Carnevale, Roberto; Violi, Francesco. - In: INTERNAL AND EMERGENCY MEDICINE. - ISSN 1828-0447. - 13:8(2018), pp. 1211-1217-1217. [10.1007/s11739-018-1913-z]

Hazelnut and cocoa spread improves flow-mediated dilatation in smokers

Loffredo, Lorenzo;Perri, Ludovica;Nocella, Cristina;Menichelli, Danilo;Cammisotto, Vittoria;Novo, Marta;Carnevale, Roberto;Violi, Francesco
2018

Abstract

Hazelnut and cocoa spread is an Italian product containing cocoa and hazelnut. Several epidemiological studies suggest that cocoa and hazelnuts cocoa exert beneficial cardiovascular effects. To investigate whether in smokers, hazelnut and cocoa spread elicits artery dilatation via down-regulation of oxidative stress. Flow-mediated dilatation (FMD), oxidative stress (as assessed by serum isoprostanes excretion, Nox2 activation and NO bioavailability) and antioxidant status [as assessed by vitamin E levels, plasma total polyphenols and H 2 O 2 breaking down activity (HBA)] were studied in 20 smokers in a crossover, single-blind study. Patients were randomly allocated to 60 g of Hazelnut and cocoa spread or 60 g of milk chocolate (≤ 35% cocoa). FMD, serum isoprostanes, Nox2 activation, NOx, vitamin E, HBA and total polyphenols were assessed at baseline and 2 h after chocolate ingestion. After Hazelnut and cocoa spread intake, FMD and NOx significantly increased (from 4.3 ± 2.8 to 8.0 ± 3.2%, p < 0.001 and from 23.1 ± 5.5 to 32.0 ± 12.6 µM, p = 0.016, respectively); conversely, serum isoprostanes and Nox2 activation significantly decreased (from 302.8 ± 59.8 to 240.7 ± 90.8 pmol/l, p = 0.03 and from 25 ± 4.4 to 22.6 ± 3.2, p = 0.03, respectively). After Hazelnut and cocoa spread intake, serum total polyphenols, vitamin E and HBA significantly increased (from 133.8 ± 49.7 to 202.5 ± 69.5 mg/l GAE, p = 0.001; from 3.56 ± 1.4 to 4.5 ± 1.0 μmol/mmol cholesterol, p = 0.002 and from 63.3 ± 13.2 to 74.2 ± 12.4%, p = 0.003, respectively). No changes in the above variables were observed after milk chocolate intake. A linear correlation analysis shows that Δ (expressed by difference of values between before and after chocolate intake) of FMD correlates with Δ of total polyphenols and Δ of vitamin E. This study shows that Hazelnut and cocoa spread improves FMD with a mechanism potentially involving downregulation of oxidative stress and eventually increased NO generation in smokers.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11573/1269213
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