Alzheimer's disease, the most common form of dementia, is marked by progressive cognitive and functional impairment believed to reflect synaptic and neuronal loss. Recent preclinical data suggests that lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated microglia may contribute to the elimination of viable neurons and synapses by promoting a neurotoxic astrocytic phenotype, defined as A1. The innate immune cells, including microglia and astrocytes, can either facilitate or inhibit neuroinflammation in response to peripherally applied inflammatory stimuli, such as LPS. Depending on previous antigen encounters, these cells can assume activated (trained) or silenced (tolerized) phenotypes, augmenting or lowering inflammation. Iron, reactive oxygen species (ROS), and LPS, the cell wall component of gram-negative bacteria, are microglial activators, but only the latter can trigger immune tolerization. In Alzheimer's disease, tolerization may be impaired as elevated LPS levels, reported in this condition, fail to lower neuroinflammation. Iron is closely linked to immunity as it plays a key role in immune cells proliferation and maturation, but it is also indispensable to pathogens andmalignancies which compete for its capture. Danger signals, including LPS, induce intracellular iron sequestration in innate immune cells to withhold it from pathogens. However, excess cytosolic iron increases the risk of inflammasomes' activation, microglial training and neuroinflammation. Moreover, it was suggested that free iron can awaken the dormant central nervous system (CNS) LPS-shedding microbes, engendering prolonged neuroinflammation that may override immune tolerization, triggering autoimmunity. In this review, we focus on iron-related innate immune pathology in Alzheimer's disease and discuss potential immunotherapeutic agents for microglial de-escalation along with possible delivery vehicles for these compounds.
Rusty microglia: trainers of innate immunity in Alzheimer's disease / Sfera, Adonis; Gradini, Roberto; Cummings, Michael; Diaz, Eddie; Price, Amy I.; Osorio, Carolina. - In: FRONTIERS IN NEUROLOGY. - ISSN 1664-2295. - 9(2018), pp. 1-16.
|Titolo:||Rusty microglia: trainers of innate immunity in Alzheimer's disease|
|Data di pubblicazione:||2018|
|Citazione:||Rusty microglia: trainers of innate immunity in Alzheimer's disease / Sfera, Adonis; Gradini, Roberto; Cummings, Michael; Diaz, Eddie; Price, Amy I.; Osorio, Carolina. - In: FRONTIERS IN NEUROLOGY. - ISSN 1664-2295. - 9(2018), pp. 1-16.|
|Appartiene alla tipologia:||01a Articolo in rivista|