The improvement of maritime traffic safety and security is a subject of growing interest, since the traffic is constantly increasing. In fact, a large number of human activities take place in maritime domain, varying from cruise and trading ships up to vessels involved in nefarious activities such as piracy, human smuggling or terrorist actions. The systems based on Automatic Identification System (AIS) transponder cannot cope with non-cooperative or non-equipped vessels that instead can be detected, tracked and identified by means of radar system. In particular, passive bistatic radar (PBR) systems can perform these tasks without a dedicated transmitter, since they exploit illuminators of opportunity as transmitters. The lack of a dedicated transmitter makes such systems low cost and suitable to be employed in areas where active sensors cannot be placed such as, for example, marine protected areas. Innovative solutions based on terrestrial transmitters have been considered in order to increase maritime safety and security, but these kinds of sources cannot guarantee a global coverage, such as in open sea. To overcome this problem, the exploitation of global navigation satellites system (GNSS) as transmitters of opportunity is a prospective solution. The global, reliable and persistent nature of these sources makes them potentially able to guarantee the permanent monitoring of both coastal and open sea areas. To this aim, this thesis addresses the exploitation of Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) as transmitters of opportunity in passive bistatic radar (PBR) systems for maritime surveillance. The main limitation of this technology is the restricted power budget provided by navigation satellites, which makes it necessary to define innovative moving target detection techniques specifically tailored for the system under consideration. For this reason, this thesis puts forward long integration time techniques able to collect the signal energy over long time intervals (tens of seconds), allowing the retrieval of suitable levels of signal-to-disturbance ratios for detection purposes. The feasibility of this novel application is firstly investigated in a bistatic system configuration. A long integration time moving target detection technique working in bistatic range&Doppler plane is proposed and its effectiveness is proved against synthetic and experimental datasets. Subsequently the exploitation of multiple transmitters for the joint detection and localization of vessels at sea is also investigated. A single-stage approach to jointly detect and localize the ship targets by making use of long integration times (tens of seconds) and properly exploiting the spatial diversity offered by such a configuration is proposed. Furthermore, the potential of the system to extract information concerning the detected target characteristics for further target classification is assessed.

GNSS-based passive radar techniques for maritime surveillance / Pieralice, Federica. - (2019 Feb 18).

GNSS-based passive radar techniques for maritime surveillance

PIERALICE, FEDERICA
2019-02-18

Abstract

The improvement of maritime traffic safety and security is a subject of growing interest, since the traffic is constantly increasing. In fact, a large number of human activities take place in maritime domain, varying from cruise and trading ships up to vessels involved in nefarious activities such as piracy, human smuggling or terrorist actions. The systems based on Automatic Identification System (AIS) transponder cannot cope with non-cooperative or non-equipped vessels that instead can be detected, tracked and identified by means of radar system. In particular, passive bistatic radar (PBR) systems can perform these tasks without a dedicated transmitter, since they exploit illuminators of opportunity as transmitters. The lack of a dedicated transmitter makes such systems low cost and suitable to be employed in areas where active sensors cannot be placed such as, for example, marine protected areas. Innovative solutions based on terrestrial transmitters have been considered in order to increase maritime safety and security, but these kinds of sources cannot guarantee a global coverage, such as in open sea. To overcome this problem, the exploitation of global navigation satellites system (GNSS) as transmitters of opportunity is a prospective solution. The global, reliable and persistent nature of these sources makes them potentially able to guarantee the permanent monitoring of both coastal and open sea areas. To this aim, this thesis addresses the exploitation of Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) as transmitters of opportunity in passive bistatic radar (PBR) systems for maritime surveillance. The main limitation of this technology is the restricted power budget provided by navigation satellites, which makes it necessary to define innovative moving target detection techniques specifically tailored for the system under consideration. For this reason, this thesis puts forward long integration time techniques able to collect the signal energy over long time intervals (tens of seconds), allowing the retrieval of suitable levels of signal-to-disturbance ratios for detection purposes. The feasibility of this novel application is firstly investigated in a bistatic system configuration. A long integration time moving target detection technique working in bistatic range&Doppler plane is proposed and its effectiveness is proved against synthetic and experimental datasets. Subsequently the exploitation of multiple transmitters for the joint detection and localization of vessels at sea is also investigated. A single-stage approach to jointly detect and localize the ship targets by making use of long integration times (tens of seconds) and properly exploiting the spatial diversity offered by such a configuration is proposed. Furthermore, the potential of the system to extract information concerning the detected target characteristics for further target classification is assessed.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11573/1242385
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