Since it is impossible to recognize malignancy at fine needle aspiration (FNA) cytology in indeterminate thyroid nodules, surgery is recommended for all of them. However, cancer rate at final histology is < 30%. Many different test-methods have been proposed to increase diagnostic accuracy in such lesions, including Galectin-3-ICC (GAL-3-ICC), BRAF mutation analysis (BRAF), Gene Expression Classifier (GEC) alone and GEC+BRAF, mutation/fusion (M/F) panel, alone, M/F panel+miRNA GEC, and M/F panel by next generation sequencing (NGS), FDG-PET/CT, MIBI-Scan and TSHR mRNA blood assay. We performed systematic reviews and meta-analyses to compare their features, feasibility, diagnostic performance and cost. GEC, GEC+BRAF, M/F panel+miRNA GEC and M/F panel by NGS were the best in ruling-out malignancy (sensitivity = 90%, 89%, 89% and 90% respectively). BRAF and M/F panel alone and by NGS were the best in ruling-in malignancy (specificity = 100%, 93% and 93%). The M/F by NGS showed the highest accuracy (92%) and BRAF the highest diagnostic odds ratio (DOR) (247). GAL-3-ICC performed well as rule-out (sensitivity = 83%) and rule-in test (specificity = 85%), with good accuracy (84%) and high DOR (27) and is one of the cheapest (113 USD) and easiest one to be performed in different clinical settings. In conclusion, the more accurate molecular-based test-methods are still expensive and restricted to few, highly specialized and centralized laboratories. GAL-3-ICC, although limited by some false negatives, represents the most suitable screening test-method to be applied on a large-scale basis in the diagnostic algorithm of indeterminate thyroid lesions.

Comparative analysis of diagnostic performance, feasibility and cost of different test-methods for thyroid nodules with indeterminate cytology / Sciacchitano, Salvatore; Lavra, Luca; Ulivieri, Alessandra; Magi, Fiorenza; DE FRANCESCO, GIAN PAOLO; Bellotti, Carlo; Salehi, Leila B.; Trovato, CHIARA MARIA; Drago, Carlo; Bartolazzi, Armando. - In: ONCOTARGET. - ISSN 1949-2553. - 8:30(2017), pp. 49421-49442. [10.18632/oncotarget.17220]

Comparative analysis of diagnostic performance, feasibility and cost of different test-methods for thyroid nodules with indeterminate cytology

Salvatore Sciacchitano
Primo
Investigation
;
Luca Lavra;Gian Paolo De Francesco;Carlo Bellotti;Maria Trovato;Armando Bartolazzi
Ultimo
2017

Abstract

Since it is impossible to recognize malignancy at fine needle aspiration (FNA) cytology in indeterminate thyroid nodules, surgery is recommended for all of them. However, cancer rate at final histology is < 30%. Many different test-methods have been proposed to increase diagnostic accuracy in such lesions, including Galectin-3-ICC (GAL-3-ICC), BRAF mutation analysis (BRAF), Gene Expression Classifier (GEC) alone and GEC+BRAF, mutation/fusion (M/F) panel, alone, M/F panel+miRNA GEC, and M/F panel by next generation sequencing (NGS), FDG-PET/CT, MIBI-Scan and TSHR mRNA blood assay. We performed systematic reviews and meta-analyses to compare their features, feasibility, diagnostic performance and cost. GEC, GEC+BRAF, M/F panel+miRNA GEC and M/F panel by NGS were the best in ruling-out malignancy (sensitivity = 90%, 89%, 89% and 90% respectively). BRAF and M/F panel alone and by NGS were the best in ruling-in malignancy (specificity = 100%, 93% and 93%). The M/F by NGS showed the highest accuracy (92%) and BRAF the highest diagnostic odds ratio (DOR) (247). GAL-3-ICC performed well as rule-out (sensitivity = 83%) and rule-in test (specificity = 85%), with good accuracy (84%) and high DOR (27) and is one of the cheapest (113 USD) and easiest one to be performed in different clinical settings. In conclusion, the more accurate molecular-based test-methods are still expensive and restricted to few, highly specialized and centralized laboratories. GAL-3-ICC, although limited by some false negatives, represents the most suitable screening test-method to be applied on a large-scale basis in the diagnostic algorithm of indeterminate thyroid lesions.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11573/1212383
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