Research on bullying and homophobic bullying has mainly focused on school contexts, with little research on bullying in sports-related contexts. Consequently, the differences between people who identify as sexual minorities and people who identify as heterosexual in terms of sports-related bullying and sports-related homophobic bullying remain even less explored. This study used a sample of 88 gay men and 120 heterosexual men to examine the frequency of bullying experiences in Italian sports-related contexts. The results showed that gay men reported more frequent bullying, 22(1, 208) = 22.140, p < 0.001, and homophobic bullying, 22(1, 208) = 6.870, p < 0.01, in sports-related contexts than heterosexual men. Gay men also reported dropping out of sports more frequently, namely due to a fear of being bullied, 22(1, 208) = 13.914, p < 0.001, and greater familial pressure to conform to masculine-type sports, 22(1, 208) = 12.323, p < 0.001. Overall, victims of bullying displayed higher levels of self-hatred than those who were not bullied in sports-related contexts, F(1,207) = 9.10; p < 0.001, ηp2= 0.05. In addition, gay men who were victims of bullying or homophobic bullying displayed higher levels of internalized sexual stigma than gay men who were not bullied in sports-related contexts, F(1,84) = 9.61; p < 0.001, ηp2 = 0.19. Results suggest that gay men are more at risk of bullying and may be particularly vulnerable in sports-related contexts because these environments still represent a belief system that privileges heterosexuality, stigmatizing other, nonconforming sexual behaviors or gender preferences. This is especially true in a context such as the Italian one, where traditional gender norms and homophobic attitudes are still rife. It is necessary to promote safer sports-related contexts for people who identify as a sexual minority or who self-identify as heterosexual yet are perceived as lesbian, gay or bisexual.
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|Titolo:||Sports as a dangerous environment: homophobia and bullying|
PISTELLA, JESSICA (Corresponding author)
|Data di pubblicazione:||2017|
|Appartiene alla tipologia:||04d Abstract in atti di convegno|