Sodium oxybate (Xyrem®), the sodium salt of γ- hydroxybutyric acid (GHB), is a first-line treatment of the symptoms induced by type 1 narcolepsy (NT1) and it is highly effective in improving sleep architecture, decreasing excessive daytime sleepiness and the frequency of cataplexy attacks. Using an ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC–MS/MS) validated method, GHB was determined together with its glucuronide (GHB-gluc), in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples of NT1 patients under sodium oxybate treatment. To characterize the plasma pharmacokinetics of GHB, three subjects with NT1 were administered at time 0 and 4 h with 1.25, 1.5 and 3.55 g Xyrem®, respectively and had their blood samples collected at 7 time points throughout an 8-h session. CSF specimens, collected for orexin A measurement from the same three subjects 6 h after their second administration, were also tested. The results obtained suggested that GHB plasma values increased disproportionally with the rising doses, (Cmax0–4: 12.53, 32.95 and 69.62 μg/mL; Cmax4–8: 44.93, 75.03 and 111.93 μg/mL for total Xyrem®dose of 2.5, 3 and 7 g respectively) indicating non-linear dose-response. GHB-Gluc was present only in traces in all plasma samples from treated patients, not changing with increasing Xyrem®doses. GHB values of 5.62, 6.10 and 17.74 μg/mL for 2, 3 and 7 g Xyrem®were found in CSF with a significant difference from control values. GHB-Gluc was found in negligible concentrations with no differences to those of control individuals. In conclusion this simple and fast UHPLC–MS/MS method proved useful for pharmacokinetic studies and therapeutic drug monitoring of GHB in narcoleptic patients treated with sodium oxybate.

Ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry determination of GHB, GHB-glucuronide in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid of narcoleptic patients under sodium oxybate treatment / Tittarelli, R; Pichini, S; Pedersen, Ds; Pacifici, R; Moresco, M; Pizza, F; Busardò, Fp; Plazzi, G.. - In: FORENSIC SCIENCE INTERNATIONAL. - ISSN 0379-0738. - 274:S1(2017), pp. 70-74. [10.1016/j.forsciint.2017.01.015]

Ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry determination of GHB, GHB-glucuronide in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid of narcoleptic patients under sodium oxybate treatment

Tittarelli R
Primo
;
Busardò FP;
2017

Abstract

Sodium oxybate (Xyrem®), the sodium salt of γ- hydroxybutyric acid (GHB), is a first-line treatment of the symptoms induced by type 1 narcolepsy (NT1) and it is highly effective in improving sleep architecture, decreasing excessive daytime sleepiness and the frequency of cataplexy attacks. Using an ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC–MS/MS) validated method, GHB was determined together with its glucuronide (GHB-gluc), in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples of NT1 patients under sodium oxybate treatment. To characterize the plasma pharmacokinetics of GHB, three subjects with NT1 were administered at time 0 and 4 h with 1.25, 1.5 and 3.55 g Xyrem®, respectively and had their blood samples collected at 7 time points throughout an 8-h session. CSF specimens, collected for orexin A measurement from the same three subjects 6 h after their second administration, were also tested. The results obtained suggested that GHB plasma values increased disproportionally with the rising doses, (Cmax0–4: 12.53, 32.95 and 69.62 μg/mL; Cmax4–8: 44.93, 75.03 and 111.93 μg/mL for total Xyrem®dose of 2.5, 3 and 7 g respectively) indicating non-linear dose-response. GHB-Gluc was present only in traces in all plasma samples from treated patients, not changing with increasing Xyrem®doses. GHB values of 5.62, 6.10 and 17.74 μg/mL for 2, 3 and 7 g Xyrem®were found in CSF with a significant difference from control values. GHB-Gluc was found in negligible concentrations with no differences to those of control individuals. In conclusion this simple and fast UHPLC–MS/MS method proved useful for pharmacokinetic studies and therapeutic drug monitoring of GHB in narcoleptic patients treated with sodium oxybate.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11573/1174867
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