Regulation of immune responses is critical for ensuring pathogen clearance and for preventing reaction against self-antigens. Failure or breakdown of immunological tolerance results in autoimmunity. CD28 is an important co-stimulatory receptor expressed on T cells that, upon specific ligand binding, delivers signals essential for full T-cell activation and for the development and homeostasis of suppressive regulatory T cells. Many in vivo mouse models have been used for understanding the role of CD28 in the maintenance of immune homeostasis, thus leading to the development of CD28 signaling modulators that have been approved for the treatment of some autoimmune diseases. Despite all of this progress, a deeper understanding of the differences between the mouse and human receptor is required to allow a safe translation of pre-clinical studies in efficient therapies. In this review, we discuss the role of CD28 in tolerance and autoimmunity and the clinical efficacy of drugs that block or enhance CD28 signaling, by highlighting the success and failure of pre-clinical studies, when translated to humans.

CD28 between tolerance and autoimmunity: The side effects of animal models [version 1; referees: 2 approved] / Porciello, Nicla; Kunkl, Martina; Tuosto, Loretta. - In: F1000RESEARCH. - ISSN 2046-1402. - ELETTRONICO. - 7:May 30(2018), pp. 1-8. [10.12688/f1000research.14046.1]

CD28 between tolerance and autoimmunity: The side effects of animal models [version 1; referees: 2 approved]

Porciello, Nicla
Writing – Review & Editing
;
Kunkl, Martina
Writing – Review & Editing
;
Tuosto, Loretta
Writing – Original Draft Preparation
2018

Abstract

Regulation of immune responses is critical for ensuring pathogen clearance and for preventing reaction against self-antigens. Failure or breakdown of immunological tolerance results in autoimmunity. CD28 is an important co-stimulatory receptor expressed on T cells that, upon specific ligand binding, delivers signals essential for full T-cell activation and for the development and homeostasis of suppressive regulatory T cells. Many in vivo mouse models have been used for understanding the role of CD28 in the maintenance of immune homeostasis, thus leading to the development of CD28 signaling modulators that have been approved for the treatment of some autoimmune diseases. Despite all of this progress, a deeper understanding of the differences between the mouse and human receptor is required to allow a safe translation of pre-clinical studies in efficient therapies. In this review, we discuss the role of CD28 in tolerance and autoimmunity and the clinical efficacy of drugs that block or enhance CD28 signaling, by highlighting the success and failure of pre-clinical studies, when translated to humans.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11573/1115817
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