OBJECTIVES: Overlapping neural system dysfunctions, mainly involving the secondary somatosensory cortex (S2), the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and the anterior insular cortex (AIC), seem to be related to both pain-perception abnormalities and psychotic symptoms in schizophrenia (SCZ) and bipolar disorder (BD). Laser-evoked potentials (LEPs) were used to investigate pain-perception and central pain-processing abnormalities in SCZ, bipolar I disorder (BD-I), and bipolar II disorder (BD-II), and to evaluate their relationship with history of psychosis, and social-cognitive and functional impairments. METHODS: Twenty patients with SCZ, 17 patients with BD-I, and 21 patients with BD-II who were all under similar pharmacological treatment underwent clinical, functional, and neuro-psychological assessment. LEPs were analyzed in patients and 19 healthy subjects (HS). LEPs elicit responses reflecting the activity of the S2 (N1 wave) and the ACC/AIC cortices (N2/P2 complex). A four-group ANOVA was conducted between patients and HS to compare pain-perceptive thresholds (PThs), N1, and N2/P2-LEP components. RESULTS: Compared to HS: (i) patients with SCZ showed pain-processing and pain-perception abnormalities, as revealed by significantly higher PTh (P<.01), and lower N1 (P<.01) and N2/P2 (P<.01) amplitudes, (ii) patients with BD-I showed only pain-processing abnormalities, as revealed by significantly lower N1 (P<.05) and N2 (P<.01) amplitudes; and patients with BD-II did not differ for any of the LEP variables investigated. N1 and N2 amplitudes negatively correlated to history of psychosis (P<.01), social-cognition (P<.05), and real-world functioning (P<.01) measures in the whole group of patients. CONCLUSIONS: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study comparing central pain processing in patients with SCZ, BD-I, and BD-II. Our results suggest that pain-processing abnormalities may represent a novel locus of interest for research investigating trait markers of the psychosis spectrum.

Pain-processing abnormalities in bipolar I disorder, bipolar II disorder, and schizophrenia: A novel trait marker for psychosis proneness and functional outcome? / Minichino, Amedeo; Delle Chiaie, Roberto; Cruccu, Giorgio; Piroso, Serena; Di Stefano, Giulia; Francesconi, Marta; Bersani, Francesco Saverio; Biondi, Massimo; Truini, Andrea. - In: BIPOLAR DISORDERS. - ISSN 1398-5647. - 18:7(2016), pp. 591-601. [10.1111/bdi.12439]

Pain-processing abnormalities in bipolar I disorder, bipolar II disorder, and schizophrenia: A novel trait marker for psychosis proneness and functional outcome?

Minichino, Amedeo;Delle Chiaie, Roberto;Cruccu, Giorgio;PIROSO, SERENA;Di Stefano, Giulia;Francesconi, Marta;Bersani, Francesco Saverio;Biondi, Massimo;Truini, Andrea
2016

Abstract

OBJECTIVES: Overlapping neural system dysfunctions, mainly involving the secondary somatosensory cortex (S2), the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and the anterior insular cortex (AIC), seem to be related to both pain-perception abnormalities and psychotic symptoms in schizophrenia (SCZ) and bipolar disorder (BD). Laser-evoked potentials (LEPs) were used to investigate pain-perception and central pain-processing abnormalities in SCZ, bipolar I disorder (BD-I), and bipolar II disorder (BD-II), and to evaluate their relationship with history of psychosis, and social-cognitive and functional impairments. METHODS: Twenty patients with SCZ, 17 patients with BD-I, and 21 patients with BD-II who were all under similar pharmacological treatment underwent clinical, functional, and neuro-psychological assessment. LEPs were analyzed in patients and 19 healthy subjects (HS). LEPs elicit responses reflecting the activity of the S2 (N1 wave) and the ACC/AIC cortices (N2/P2 complex). A four-group ANOVA was conducted between patients and HS to compare pain-perceptive thresholds (PThs), N1, and N2/P2-LEP components. RESULTS: Compared to HS: (i) patients with SCZ showed pain-processing and pain-perception abnormalities, as revealed by significantly higher PTh (P<.01), and lower N1 (P<.01) and N2/P2 (P<.01) amplitudes, (ii) patients with BD-I showed only pain-processing abnormalities, as revealed by significantly lower N1 (P<.05) and N2 (P<.01) amplitudes; and patients with BD-II did not differ for any of the LEP variables investigated. N1 and N2 amplitudes negatively correlated to history of psychosis (P<.01), social-cognition (P<.05), and real-world functioning (P<.01) measures in the whole group of patients. CONCLUSIONS: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study comparing central pain processing in patients with SCZ, BD-I, and BD-II. Our results suggest that pain-processing abnormalities may represent a novel locus of interest for research investigating trait markers of the psychosis spectrum.
2016
bipolar disorder; cingulate cortex; evoked potentials; insula; pain; psychosis; salience network; schizophrenia; somatosensory cortex; Adult; Cognition; Female; Humans; Laser-Evoked Potentials; Male; Middle Aged; Neurophysiology; Pain Perception; Schizophrenia; Somatosensory Cortex; Bipolar Disorder; Pain; Psychotic Disorders; Social Behavior; Psychiatry and Mental Health; Biological Psychiatry
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Pain-processing abnormalities in bipolar I disorder, bipolar II disorder, and schizophrenia: A novel trait marker for psychosis proneness and functional outcome? / Minichino, Amedeo; Delle Chiaie, Roberto; Cruccu, Giorgio; Piroso, Serena; Di Stefano, Giulia; Francesconi, Marta; Bersani, Francesco Saverio; Biondi, Massimo; Truini, Andrea. - In: BIPOLAR DISORDERS. - ISSN 1398-5647. - 18:7(2016), pp. 591-601. [10.1111/bdi.12439]
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