The aim of this work is to understand the actions of Carlo Sforza as a diplomat and Foreign Affairs Minister going beyond any preconceived opinion, and to relate his decisions and official documents to his “time.” Sforza lived through a period in which the world experienced many shocking events; his story encompasses the passage from the nineteenth to the twentieth century. The study of his action as an Italian diplomat, Minister, and exile enable the historian to understand the red thread of continuity – or discontinuity, in the Italian foreign policy. For this reason, the objective of this work is to understand Sforza’s actions and foreign policy decisions drawing heavily on – published and unpublished – diplomatic documents and correspondence. Considering the amount of material related to Carlo Sforza, the study has been divided. The dissertation represents the first part of a more ambitious project which aims to reconstruct the entire life of Carlo Sforza and his international action. This work analyzes the first years of Sforza’s career, from 1896 to 1922. In 1896 Sforza became a diplomat; meanwhile, the defeat of Adua shocked the Italian political system. In 1922 Sforza decided to resign because he strongly disagreed with the choice of the new Italian Prime Minister, Benito Mussolini, who included the nationalists in his Government. As a liberal, Sforza had believed in the "honest fascists" but he could hardly find a compromise with a nationalist as Federzoni - new Minister of Colonies - was. This choice stressed the personal and professional change in Sforza’s life. In fact, he had a career as a diplomat and a public servant which ended for good when he left Paris. Starting from that moment, Sforza acted as a politician and his actions would be related to his political career.
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