Forward scatter Radar systems designed to take advantage of the greater radar cross section, that is robust to Radar Absorbing Material and other stealth technology, and of the long integration times, due to the little phase and amplitude fluctuations, are attractive for a variety of applications. Many of which fit well with the needs of augmentation of the surveillance capabilities of low-observable targets that may have a small backscatter RCS when observed with the conventional radar systems. This thesis reports on research into this field of radar systems with additional contributions to target detection and motion parameters estimation. Particularly, the first part of the thesis deals with the detection of moving targets that follow a linear trajectory in a single node FSR configuration. The detection scheme based on a square-law detector followed by an appropriate matched filter, here addressed as Crystal Video Detector (CVD) following the traditional terminology (Crystal Video Receiver), has already been put forward in the literature. Performance prediction and FSR system design were key motivator to analytically characterize the detection performance of CVD in terms of both, probability of false alarm and probability of detection. The derived closed-form expressions were validate from Monte Carlo simulations under different geometrical conditions and from experimental data acquired by a passive FSR based on FM signals. Furthermore, new detection schemes based on the CVD ensuring the constant false alarm rate (CFAR) condition were devised and analytically characterized. The performance analysis showed quite small losses of the CFAR-CVD detectors compared to the fixed threshold CVD. The second part of the thesis still handles the problem of target detection through the derivation of innovative detection schemes based on the Generalized Likelihood Ratio Test (GLRT). A comparison with the detection performance of the CVD has proven the better performance of the GLRT-based detectors. In most cases the improvement has an upper bound of 3 dB. However, there are specific circumstances where the standard FSR detector shows significant losses while the GLRT schemes suffer a much smaller degradation. Moreover the possibility to have a set of secondary data assumed target free, drove to the devising of new GLRT schemes. The results demonstrated a non-negligible further improvement over the previous GLRT schemes when the operation conditions get close to the near field transition point. The detection performance of the derived detectors without and with secondary data were analytically characterized. This analytical performance allowed to derive simplified equivalent SNR expressions that relate the GLRT detection performance to the main system and target parameters. These expressions showed to be useful for the design of effective FSR geometries that guarantee desired detection performance for specific targets. In the third part of the thesis the focus is moved to the motion parameters estimation through both, a single baseline and a dual baseline FSR configuration. Accordingly, the Doppler signature extracted from the Crystal Video based scheme is exploited. Following motion parameters estimation approaches already introduced in the literature, a two dimensional filter bank technique was proposed. The main target parameters encoding Doppler rate, main lobe width and crossing time instant were estimated from such technique. The accuracy of the proposed technique was investigated from a theoretical point of view through the derivation of simplified closed-form expression of the Cramer Rao Lower Bound (CRLB). The analysis proved that unbiased estimates of the desired target parameters can be obtained that approach the derived CRLB in the high SNR region. After the dependence of the kinematic parameters on the parameters estimated from the bank was exploited. The cross baseline velocity in a single baseline configuration was estimated under the assumption that the baseline crossing point is known. Meanwhile the dual baseline configuration ensures the possibility to estimate also the baseline crossing point without a priori knowledge on the other target kinematic parameters. Once more, the CRLB of the target motion parameters for both reference scenarios was derived. The analysis proved that unbiased estimates of the target motion parameters can be obtained with high accuracy even for low SNR conditions. The effectiveness of the proposed approach was also shown from experimental data acquired by a passive FSR based on FM signals.
|Titolo:||Detection and motion parameters estimation techniques in Forward Scatter Radar|
|Data di discussione:||22-feb-2018|
|Appartiene alla tipologia:||07a Tesi di Dottorato|