This​ ​paper​ ​is​ ​based​ ​on​ ​the​ ​hypothesis​ ​that​ ​the​ ​current​ ​context​ ​of​ ​multicultural​ ​classrooms, instead​ ​than​ ​simply​ ​presenting​ ​students​ ​with​ ​national​ ​master​ ​narratives,​ ​requires​ ​to​ ​enhance​ ​the didactical​ ​goal​ ​of​ ​training​ ​reflective​ ​and​ ​critical​ ​citizens​ ​of​ ​new​ ​multicultural​ ​societies​ ​(Seixas, 2017).​ ​However,​ ​despite​ ​a​ ​growing​ ​critical​ ​awareness​ ​of​ ​the​ ​need​ ​for​ ​a​ ​multicultural​ ​approach​ ​to historical​ ​culture​ ​(see​ ​Carretero,​ ​Berger​ ​and​ ​Grever​ ​2017),​ ​empirical​ ​researches​ ​conducted​ ​in countries​ ​all​ ​over​ ​the​ ​world​ ​still​ ​show​ ​a​ ​strong​ ​opposition​ ​to​ ​the​ ​idea​ ​of​ ​eroding​ ​national frameworks​ ​of​ ​historical​ ​accounts,​ ​opposition​ ​shared​ ​not​ ​only​ ​by​ ​the​ ​public​ ​at​ ​large​ ​but​ ​also​ ​by policymakers​ ​(Carretero​ ​2011). 48 Therefore,​ ​in​ ​spite​ ​(or​ ​perhaps​ ​because?)​ ​of​ ​the​ ​new​ ​historical​ ​condition​ ​of​ ​globalization​ ​we​ ​are living​ ​in,​ ​empirical​ ​data​ ​are​ ​showing​ ​that​ ​history​ ​teaching​ ​is​ ​still​ ​very​ ​focused​ ​on​ ​the​ ​building​ ​of an​ ​"imagi-nation"​ ​(Carretero,​ ​2017),​ ​struggling​ ​against​ ​evidence​ ​to​ ​overlap​ ​the​ ​contemporary “we”​ ​with​ ​the​ ​historical​ ​“we”. Taken​ ​into​ ​account​ ​this​ ​tension​ ​between​ ​contemporary​ ​insurgence​ ​of​ ​the​ ​need​ ​for​ ​a multicultural​ ​historical​ ​culture​ ​and​ ​the​ ​permanence​ ​of​ ​national​ ​frameworks​ ​of​ ​historical accounts,​ ​a​ ​research​ ​question​ ​emerges.​ ​When​ ​facing​ ​the​ ​history​ ​curriculum​ ​they​ ​are​ ​presented with,​ ​as​ ​a​ ​guideline​ ​due​ ​to​ ​the​ ​policy​ ​of​ ​their​ ​governments​ ​–​ ​governments​ ​that​ ​in​ ​Western societies​ ​are​ ​expected​ ​to​ ​keep​ ​changing​ ​in​ ​time​ ​according​ ​to​ ​democratic​ ​rules​ ​–,​ ​to​ ​what​ ​extent and​ ​how​ ​may​ ​history​ ​teachers​ ​“make​ ​use​ ​of​ ​this​ ​guidelines​ ​with​ ​content-driven​ ​creativity” (Brauch​ ​2017,​ ​607)​ ​in​ ​order​ ​to​ ​face​ ​the​ ​contemporary​ ​insurgence​ ​of​ ​multicultural​ ​classrooms? In​ ​the​ ​framework​ ​of​ ​these​ ​new​ ​challenges​ ​for​ ​history​ ​teaching,​ ​this​ ​paper​ ​analyses​ ​the​ ​answers of​ ​254​ ​teachers​ ​of​ ​eight​ ​Western​ ​and​ ​European​ ​countries​ ​to​ ​open-ended​ ​questions​ ​included​ ​in​ ​a broader​ ​on-line​ ​questionnaire,​ ​focusing​ ​on​ ​their​ ​didactics​ ​devoted​ ​to​ ​historical​ ​sensitive​ ​issues. An​ ​explorative​ ​qualitative​ ​analysis​ ​conducted​ ​on​ ​these​ ​self-reflections​ ​of​ ​history​ ​teachers​ ​seems to​ ​suggest​ ​a​ ​widespread​ ​belief​ ​of​ ​teaching​ ​history​ ​as​ ​an​ ​activity​ ​depending​ ​only​ ​on​ ​teachers​ ​and students​ ​efforts​ ​and​ ​vulnerabilities,​ ​paying​ ​scarce​ ​attention​ ​to​ ​the​ ​influence​ ​of​ ​societal​ ​contexts and​ ​to​ ​the​ ​teacher ́s​ ​personal​ ​content​ ​knowledge​ ​about​ ​the​ ​issue​ ​in​ ​question.​ ​Cultural​ ​diversity in​ ​the​ ​classroom​ ​is​ ​presented​ ​as​ ​a​ ​potential​ ​threat​ ​to​ ​be​ ​coped​ ​with,​ ​while​ ​emotions​ ​are described​ ​in​ ​an​ ​ambivalent​ ​way,​ ​either​ ​as​ ​a​ ​threat​ ​or​ ​as​ ​a​ ​resource.​ ​Conclusive​ ​remarks​ ​advance some​ ​suggestions​ ​on​ ​how​ ​this​ ​study​ ​could​ ​contribute​ ​to​ ​improve​ ​pre-service​ ​teacher​ ​education at​ ​the​ ​university​ ​level.

This​ ​paper​ ​is​ ​based​ ​on​ ​the​ ​hypothesis​ ​that​ ​the​ ​current​ ​context​ ​of​ ​multicultural​ ​classrooms, instead​ ​than​ ​simply​ ​presenting​ ​students​ ​with​ ​national​ ​master​ ​narratives,​ ​requires​ ​to​ ​enhance​ ​the didactical​ ​goal​ ​of​ ​training​ ​reflective​ ​and​ ​critical​ ​citizens​ ​of​ ​new​ ​multicultural​ ​societies​ ​(Seixas, 2017).​ ​However,​ ​despite​ ​a​ ​growing​ ​critical​ ​awareness​ ​of​ ​the​ ​need​ ​for​ ​a​ ​multicultural​ ​approach​ ​to historical​ ​culture​ ​(see​ ​Carretero,​ ​Berger​ ​and​ ​Grever​ ​2017),​ ​empirical​ ​researches​ ​conducted​ ​in countries​ ​all​ ​over​ ​the​ ​world​ ​still​ ​show​ ​a​ ​strong​ ​opposition​ ​to​ ​the​ ​idea​ ​of​ ​eroding​ ​national frameworks​ ​of​ ​historical​ ​accounts,​ ​opposition​ ​shared​ ​not​ ​only​ ​by​ ​the​ ​public​ ​at​ ​large​ ​but​ ​also​ ​by policymakers​ ​(Carretero​ ​2011). 48 Therefore,​ ​in​ ​spite​ ​(or​ ​perhaps​ ​because?)​ ​of​ ​the​ ​new​ ​historical​ ​condition​ ​of​ ​globalization​ ​we​ ​are living​ ​in,​ ​empirical​ ​data​ ​are​ ​showing​ ​that​ ​history​ ​teaching​ ​is​ ​still​ ​very​ ​focused​ ​on​ ​the​ ​building​ ​of an​ ​"imagi-nation"​ ​(Carretero,​ ​2017),​ ​struggling​ ​against​ ​evidence​ ​to​ ​overlap​ ​the​ ​contemporary “we”​ ​with​ ​the​ ​historical​ ​“we”. Taken​ ​into​ ​account​ ​this​ ​tension​ ​between​ ​contemporary​ ​insurgence​ ​of​ ​the​ ​need​ ​for​ ​a multicultural​ ​historical​ ​culture​ ​and​ ​the​ ​permanence​ ​of​ ​national​ ​frameworks​ ​of​ ​historical accounts,​ ​a​ ​research​ ​question​ ​emerges.​ ​When​ ​facing​ ​the​ ​history​ ​curriculum​ ​they​ ​are​ ​presented with,​ ​as​ ​a​ ​guideline​ ​due​ ​to​ ​the​ ​policy​ ​of​ ​their​ ​governments​ ​–​ ​governments​ ​that​ ​in​ ​Western societies​ ​are​ ​expected​ ​to​ ​keep​ ​changing​ ​in​ ​time​ ​according​ ​to​ ​democratic​ ​rules​ ​–,​ ​to​ ​what​ ​extent and​ ​how​ ​may​ ​history​ ​teachers​ ​“make​ ​use​ ​of​ ​this​ ​guidelines​ ​with​ ​content-driven​ ​creativity” (Brauch​ ​2017,​ ​607)​ ​in​ ​order​ ​to​ ​face​ ​the​ ​contemporary​ ​insurgence​ ​of​ ​multicultural​ ​classrooms? In​ ​the​ ​framework​ ​of​ ​these​ ​new​ ​challenges​ ​for​ ​history​ ​teaching,​ ​this​ ​paper​ ​analyses​ ​the​ ​answers of​ ​254​ ​teachers​ ​of​ ​eight​ ​Western​ ​and​ ​European​ ​countries​ ​to​ ​open-ended​ ​questions​ ​included​ ​in​ ​a broader​ ​on-line​ ​questionnaire,​ ​focusing​ ​on​ ​their​ ​didactics​ ​devoted​ ​to​ ​historical​ ​sensitive​ ​issues. An​ ​explorative​ ​qualitative​ ​analysis​ ​conducted​ ​on​ ​these​ ​self-reflections​ ​of​ ​history​ ​teachers​ ​seems to​ ​suggest​ ​a​ ​widespread​ ​belief​ ​of​ ​teaching​ ​history​ ​as​ ​an​ ​activity​ ​depending​ ​only​ ​on​ ​teachers​ ​and students​ ​efforts​ ​and​ ​vulnerabilities,​ ​paying​ ​scarce​ ​attention​ ​to​ ​the​ ​influence​ ​of​ ​societal​ ​contexts and​ ​to​ ​the​ ​teacher ́s​ ​personal​ ​content​ ​knowledge​ ​about​ ​the​ ​issue​ ​in​ ​question.​ ​Cultural​ ​diversity in​ ​the​ ​classroom​ ​is​ ​presented​ ​as​ ​a​ ​potential​ ​threat​ ​to​ ​be​ ​coped​ ​with,​ ​while​ ​emotions​ ​are described​ ​in​ ​an​ ​ambivalent​ ​way,​ ​either​ ​as​ ​a​ ​threat​ ​or​ ​as​ ​a​ ​resource.​ ​Conclusive​ ​remarks​ ​advance some​ ​suggestions​ ​on​ ​how​ ​this​ ​study​ ​could​ ​contribute​ ​to​ ​improve​ ​pre-service​ ​teacher​ ​education at​ ​the​ ​university​ ​level.

Which historical culture for multicultural classrooms? Self-reflections of teachers when recalling their lessons on sensitive issues.

Leone, Giovanna
2017

Abstract

This​ ​paper​ ​is​ ​based​ ​on​ ​the​ ​hypothesis​ ​that​ ​the​ ​current​ ​context​ ​of​ ​multicultural​ ​classrooms, instead​ ​than​ ​simply​ ​presenting​ ​students​ ​with​ ​national​ ​master​ ​narratives,​ ​requires​ ​to​ ​enhance​ ​the didactical​ ​goal​ ​of​ ​training​ ​reflective​ ​and​ ​critical​ ​citizens​ ​of​ ​new​ ​multicultural​ ​societies​ ​(Seixas, 2017).​ ​However,​ ​despite​ ​a​ ​growing​ ​critical​ ​awareness​ ​of​ ​the​ ​need​ ​for​ ​a​ ​multicultural​ ​approach​ ​to historical​ ​culture​ ​(see​ ​Carretero,​ ​Berger​ ​and​ ​Grever​ ​2017),​ ​empirical​ ​researches​ ​conducted​ ​in countries​ ​all​ ​over​ ​the​ ​world​ ​still​ ​show​ ​a​ ​strong​ ​opposition​ ​to​ ​the​ ​idea​ ​of​ ​eroding​ ​national frameworks​ ​of​ ​historical​ ​accounts,​ ​opposition​ ​shared​ ​not​ ​only​ ​by​ ​the​ ​public​ ​at​ ​large​ ​but​ ​also​ ​by policymakers​ ​(Carretero​ ​2011). 48 Therefore,​ ​in​ ​spite​ ​(or​ ​perhaps​ ​because?)​ ​of​ ​the​ ​new​ ​historical​ ​condition​ ​of​ ​globalization​ ​we​ ​are living​ ​in,​ ​empirical​ ​data​ ​are​ ​showing​ ​that​ ​history​ ​teaching​ ​is​ ​still​ ​very​ ​focused​ ​on​ ​the​ ​building​ ​of an​ ​"imagi-nation"​ ​(Carretero,​ ​2017),​ ​struggling​ ​against​ ​evidence​ ​to​ ​overlap​ ​the​ ​contemporary “we”​ ​with​ ​the​ ​historical​ ​“we”. Taken​ ​into​ ​account​ ​this​ ​tension​ ​between​ ​contemporary​ ​insurgence​ ​of​ ​the​ ​need​ ​for​ ​a multicultural​ ​historical​ ​culture​ ​and​ ​the​ ​permanence​ ​of​ ​national​ ​frameworks​ ​of​ ​historical accounts,​ ​a​ ​research​ ​question​ ​emerges.​ ​When​ ​facing​ ​the​ ​history​ ​curriculum​ ​they​ ​are​ ​presented with,​ ​as​ ​a​ ​guideline​ ​due​ ​to​ ​the​ ​policy​ ​of​ ​their​ ​governments​ ​–​ ​governments​ ​that​ ​in​ ​Western societies​ ​are​ ​expected​ ​to​ ​keep​ ​changing​ ​in​ ​time​ ​according​ ​to​ ​democratic​ ​rules​ ​–,​ ​to​ ​what​ ​extent and​ ​how​ ​may​ ​history​ ​teachers​ ​“make​ ​use​ ​of​ ​this​ ​guidelines​ ​with​ ​content-driven​ ​creativity” (Brauch​ ​2017,​ ​607)​ ​in​ ​order​ ​to​ ​face​ ​the​ ​contemporary​ ​insurgence​ ​of​ ​multicultural​ ​classrooms? In​ ​the​ ​framework​ ​of​ ​these​ ​new​ ​challenges​ ​for​ ​history​ ​teaching,​ ​this​ ​paper​ ​analyses​ ​the​ ​answers of​ ​254​ ​teachers​ ​of​ ​eight​ ​Western​ ​and​ ​European​ ​countries​ ​to​ ​open-ended​ ​questions​ ​included​ ​in​ ​a broader​ ​on-line​ ​questionnaire,​ ​focusing​ ​on​ ​their​ ​didactics​ ​devoted​ ​to​ ​historical​ ​sensitive​ ​issues. An​ ​explorative​ ​qualitative​ ​analysis​ ​conducted​ ​on​ ​these​ ​self-reflections​ ​of​ ​history​ ​teachers​ ​seems to​ ​suggest​ ​a​ ​widespread​ ​belief​ ​of​ ​teaching​ ​history​ ​as​ ​an​ ​activity​ ​depending​ ​only​ ​on​ ​teachers​ ​and students​ ​efforts​ ​and​ ​vulnerabilities,​ ​paying​ ​scarce​ ​attention​ ​to​ ​the​ ​influence​ ​of​ ​societal​ ​contexts and​ ​to​ ​the​ ​teacher ́s​ ​personal​ ​content​ ​knowledge​ ​about​ ​the​ ​issue​ ​in​ ​question.​ ​Cultural​ ​diversity in​ ​the​ ​classroom​ ​is​ ​presented​ ​as​ ​a​ ​potential​ ​threat​ ​to​ ​be​ ​coped​ ​with,​ ​while​ ​emotions​ ​are described​ ​in​ ​an​ ​ambivalent​ ​way,​ ​either​ ​as​ ​a​ ​threat​ ​or​ ​as​ ​a​ ​resource.​ ​Conclusive​ ​remarks​ ​advance some​ ​suggestions​ ​on​ ​how​ ​this​ ​study​ ​could​ ​contribute​ ​to​ ​improve​ ​pre-service​ ​teacher​ ​education at​ ​the​ ​university​ ​level.
This​ ​paper​ ​is​ ​based​ ​on​ ​the​ ​hypothesis​ ​that​ ​the​ ​current​ ​context​ ​of​ ​multicultural​ ​classrooms, instead​ ​than​ ​simply​ ​presenting​ ​students​ ​with​ ​national​ ​master​ ​narratives,​ ​requires​ ​to​ ​enhance​ ​the didactical​ ​goal​ ​of​ ​training​ ​reflective​ ​and​ ​critical​ ​citizens​ ​of​ ​new​ ​multicultural​ ​societies​ ​(Seixas, 2017).​ ​However,​ ​despite​ ​a​ ​growing​ ​critical​ ​awareness​ ​of​ ​the​ ​need​ ​for​ ​a​ ​multicultural​ ​approach​ ​to historical​ ​culture​ ​(see​ ​Carretero,​ ​Berger​ ​and​ ​Grever​ ​2017),​ ​empirical​ ​researches​ ​conducted​ ​in countries​ ​all​ ​over​ ​the​ ​world​ ​still​ ​show​ ​a​ ​strong​ ​opposition​ ​to​ ​the​ ​idea​ ​of​ ​eroding​ ​national frameworks​ ​of​ ​historical​ ​accounts,​ ​opposition​ ​shared​ ​not​ ​only​ ​by​ ​the​ ​public​ ​at​ ​large​ ​but​ ​also​ ​by policymakers​ ​(Carretero​ ​2011). 48 Therefore,​ ​in​ ​spite​ ​(or​ ​perhaps​ ​because?)​ ​of​ ​the​ ​new​ ​historical​ ​condition​ ​of​ ​globalization​ ​we​ ​are living​ ​in,​ ​empirical​ ​data​ ​are​ ​showing​ ​that​ ​history​ ​teaching​ ​is​ ​still​ ​very​ ​focused​ ​on​ ​the​ ​building​ ​of an​ ​"imagi-nation"​ ​(Carretero,​ ​2017),​ ​struggling​ ​against​ ​evidence​ ​to​ ​overlap​ ​the​ ​contemporary “we”​ ​with​ ​the​ ​historical​ ​“we”. Taken​ ​into​ ​account​ ​this​ ​tension​ ​between​ ​contemporary​ ​insurgence​ ​of​ ​the​ ​need​ ​for​ ​a multicultural​ ​historical​ ​culture​ ​and​ ​the​ ​permanence​ ​of​ ​national​ ​frameworks​ ​of​ ​historical accounts,​ ​a​ ​research​ ​question​ ​emerges.​ ​When​ ​facing​ ​the​ ​history​ ​curriculum​ ​they​ ​are​ ​presented with,​ ​as​ ​a​ ​guideline​ ​due​ ​to​ ​the​ ​policy​ ​of​ ​their​ ​governments​ ​–​ ​governments​ ​that​ ​in​ ​Western societies​ ​are​ ​expected​ ​to​ ​keep​ ​changing​ ​in​ ​time​ ​according​ ​to​ ​democratic​ ​rules​ ​–,​ ​to​ ​what​ ​extent and​ ​how​ ​may​ ​history​ ​teachers​ ​“make​ ​use​ ​of​ ​this​ ​guidelines​ ​with​ ​content-driven​ ​creativity” (Brauch​ ​2017,​ ​607)​ ​in​ ​order​ ​to​ ​face​ ​the​ ​contemporary​ ​insurgence​ ​of​ ​multicultural​ ​classrooms? In​ ​the​ ​framework​ ​of​ ​these​ ​new​ ​challenges​ ​for​ ​history​ ​teaching,​ ​this​ ​paper​ ​analyses​ ​the​ ​answers of​ ​254​ ​teachers​ ​of​ ​eight​ ​Western​ ​and​ ​European​ ​countries​ ​to​ ​open-ended​ ​questions​ ​included​ ​in​ ​a broader​ ​on-line​ ​questionnaire,​ ​focusing​ ​on​ ​their​ ​didactics​ ​devoted​ ​to​ ​historical​ ​sensitive​ ​issues. An​ ​explorative​ ​qualitative​ ​analysis​ ​conducted​ ​on​ ​these​ ​self-reflections​ ​of​ ​history​ ​teachers​ ​seems to​ ​suggest​ ​a​ ​widespread​ ​belief​ ​of​ ​teaching​ ​history​ ​as​ ​an​ ​activity​ ​depending​ ​only​ ​on​ ​teachers​ ​and students​ ​efforts​ ​and​ ​vulnerabilities,​ ​paying​ ​scarce​ ​attention​ ​to​ ​the​ ​influence​ ​of​ ​societal​ ​contexts and​ ​to​ ​the​ ​teacher ́s​ ​personal​ ​content​ ​knowledge​ ​about​ ​the​ ​issue​ ​in​ ​question.​ ​Cultural​ ​diversity in​ ​the​ ​classroom​ ​is​ ​presented​ ​as​ ​a​ ​potential​ ​threat​ ​to​ ​be​ ​coped​ ​with,​ ​while​ ​emotions​ ​are described​ ​in​ ​an​ ​ambivalent​ ​way,​ ​either​ ​as​ ​a​ ​threat​ ​or​ ​as​ ​a​ ​resource.​ ​Conclusive​ ​remarks​ ​advance some​ ​suggestions​ ​on​ ​how​ ​this​ ​study​ ​could​ ​contribute​ ​to​ ​improve​ ​pre-service​ ​teacher​ ​education at​ ​the​ ​university​ ​level.
File allegati a questo prodotto
Non ci sono file associati a questo prodotto.

I documenti in IRIS sono protetti da copyright e tutti i diritti sono riservati, salvo diversa indicazione.

Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11573/1026335
 Attenzione

Attenzione! I dati visualizzati non sono stati sottoposti a validazione da parte dell'ateneo

Citazioni
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.pmc??? ND
  • Scopus ND
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.isi??? ND
social impact