The essay would analyze the singularity of the dome of the Basilica of the Sanctuary of St Ignatius of Loyola – a double shell in stone with a diameter of approximately 20 meters – designed by the architect Carlo Fontana (1638-1714). The architect never visited the worksite under construction, and the substantial isolation of the site compared to the principal cultural centers at the time, left ample room for the local craftsmen to make decisions on their own who. So, rather than being realized in masonry (as was plausibly conceived), the dome was found to be implemented by means of the application of complex stereotomic principles, giving rise to a unicum that has not again been encountered or equaled in the entire Iberian Peninsula. This choice constrained the technical realization of the work as a whole, obligating the implementation of identical ashlars for the inner shell, as the only possible way to simplify the operations was to use pre-fabricated elements, later to be carved with ornate figures and shapes. Furthermore, these shapes – not being geometric – represent an even greater conceptual effort in the workmanship, since every block of stone had to be worked individually so that the final image was uniform.

Roman baroque models and local traditional construction. The sanctuary of St. Ignatius of Loyola and its dome

Iacopo Benincampi
2017

Abstract

The essay would analyze the singularity of the dome of the Basilica of the Sanctuary of St Ignatius of Loyola – a double shell in stone with a diameter of approximately 20 meters – designed by the architect Carlo Fontana (1638-1714). The architect never visited the worksite under construction, and the substantial isolation of the site compared to the principal cultural centers at the time, left ample room for the local craftsmen to make decisions on their own who. So, rather than being realized in masonry (as was plausibly conceived), the dome was found to be implemented by means of the application of complex stereotomic principles, giving rise to a unicum that has not again been encountered or equaled in the entire Iberian Peninsula. This choice constrained the technical realization of the work as a whole, obligating the implementation of identical ashlars for the inner shell, as the only possible way to simplify the operations was to use pre-fabricated elements, later to be carved with ornate figures and shapes. Furthermore, these shapes – not being geometric – represent an even greater conceptual effort in the workmanship, since every block of stone had to be worked individually so that the final image was uniform.
978-84-9728-562-9
La realización indirecta de la Basílica del Santuario de Loyola por el arquitecto papal Carlo Fontana (1638-1714), que diseñó todo el complejo pero nunca se hizo presente en su ejecución, dejó un amplio espacio para la intervención de los diferentes maestros de obras locales. En particular, la elevación de la cúpula – una doble concha casi perfectamente semiesférica – constituyó la máxima expresión de esta mezcla de culturas. De hecho, en lugar de cumplir plenamente las directrices probablemente trasmitidas por el dibujo del profesional romano, los maestros de obras de la region de Guipúzcoa trataron de adaptarlas a la situación provincial de la construccion, pobre en medios. Además, al participar en un cuerpo consolidado de conocimientos transmitidos por la tradición y favorecida por la gran disponibilidad local de piedra, se procedió a la redacion del proyecto ejecutivo a través de la aplicación de los principios de la ‘estereotomía’: una dirección operativa, que dio lugar a una obra artistica única, marcada por algunos dispositivos específicos. Por lo tanto, a través de un intento de traducción tridimensional del método de composición de la cúpula de acuerdo con las reglas establecidas por esta práctica y la profundización de las técnicas de construcción definidas en los tratados en el momento todavía en circulación – por ejemplo 'El libro de trazas de Cortes de Piedras' (1578-89) de Alonso de Vandelvira (1544-1626) o ‘Cerramientos y trazas de montea’ de Ginés Martínez de Aranda (1556-1620) bien conocido por Joaquin de Churriguera (1674-1724) quien participó en la fábrica – se han explorado las singularidades de esta estructura, que afectaron no sólo la misma estabilidad del implante de la iglesia, sino esctructural también que determinaron las modalidades de ejecución de las decoraciones.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11573/1017814
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