Although statins, 3 beta-hydroxy-3 beta-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HMGR) inhibitors, have revolutionized the management of cardiovascular diseases by lowering serum low density lipoproteins, many patients suffer from their side effects. Whether the statin side effects are related to their intrinsic toxicity or to the decrease of HMGR main isoprenoid end products, which are essential compounds for cell viability, is still debated. In addition to HMGR, the key and rate limiting step of cholesterol synthesis, many enzymes are involved in this multi-step pathway whose inhibition could be taken into account for a "nonstatin approach'' in the management of hypercholesterolemia. In particular, due to their unique position downstream from HMGR, the inhibition of squalene synthase, farnesyl diphosphate farnesyltransferase (FDFT1), squalene epoxidase (SQLE), and oxidosqualene cyclase: lanosterol synthase (OSC) should decrease plasma levels of cholesterol without affecting ubiquinone, dolichol, and isoprenoid metabolism. Thus, although FDFT1, SQLE and OSC are little studied, they should be considered as perspective targets for the development of novel drugs against hypercholesterolemia. Here, structure-function relationships of FDFT1, SQLE, and OSC are reviewed highlighting the advantages that the downstream inhibition of HMGR could provide when compared to the statin-based therapy.
Potential role of nonstatin cholesterol lowering agents / Trapani, Laura; Segatto, Marco; Ascenzi, Paolo; Pallottini, Valentina. - In: IUBMB LIFE. - ISSN 1521-6543. - ELETTRONICO. - 63:11(2011), pp. 964-971. [10.1002/iub.522]
|Titolo:||Potential role of nonstatin cholesterol lowering agents|
|Data di pubblicazione:||2011|
|Citazione:||Potential role of nonstatin cholesterol lowering agents / Trapani, Laura; Segatto, Marco; Ascenzi, Paolo; Pallottini, Valentina. - In: IUBMB LIFE. - ISSN 1521-6543. - ELETTRONICO. - 63:11(2011), pp. 964-971. [10.1002/iub.522]|
|Appartiene alla tipologia:||01g Articolo di rassegna (Review)|