The use of performance and image enhancing drugs (PIEDs) is not uncommon in athletes and appears to be associated with several psychopathological disorders of unclear prevalence. In this multicenter, cross-sectional study, we aimed to evaluate the prevalence of body image disorders (BIDs) and eating disorders (EDs) in PIED-using athletes vs. PIED nonusers. We enrolled 84 consecutive professional and amateur athletes training in sport centers in Italy, who underwent semi-structured interviews (SCID-I, SCID-II) and completed the Body Image Concern Inventory (BICI) and the Sick, Control, One, Fat, Food Eating Disorder Screening Test (SCOFF). PIEDs were searched for in participants’ blood, urine, and hair. Of these, 18 (21.4%) used PIEDs, the most common being anabolic androgenic steroids, amphetamine-like substances, coffee and caffeine derivatives, synthetic cathinones, and ephedrine. PIED users and nonusers did not differ in socio-demographic characteristics, but differed in clinical and psychopathological features, with PIED users being characterized by higher physical activity levels, higher daily coffee and psychotropic medication use (e.g., benzodiazepines), more SCID diagnoses of psychiatric disorders, especially substance use disorder, body dysmorphic disorder (BDD), EDs, and general anxiety disorder, higher BICI scores (indicating higher risk of BDD), and higher SCOFF scores (suggesting higher risks for BIDs and EDs).

Body Image and Eating Disorders are Common among Professional and Amateur Athletes Using Performance and Image Enhancing Drugs. A Cross-Sectional Study / Piacentino, Daria; Kotzalidis, Georgios D; Longo, Livia; Pavan, Antonio; Stivali, Luciano; Stivali, Guido; Ferracuti, Stefano; Brugnoli, Roberto; Frati, Paola; Fineschi, Vittorio; Girardi, Paolo; Sani, Gabriele. - In: JOURNAL OF PSYCHOACTIVE DRUGS. - ISSN 0279-1072. - STAMPA. - 49:5(2017), pp. 1-13. [10.1080/02791072.2017.1359708]

Body Image and Eating Disorders are Common among Professional and Amateur Athletes Using Performance and Image Enhancing Drugs. A Cross-Sectional Study

PIACENTINO, DARIA;LONGO, LIVIA;PAVAN, Antonio;FERRACUTI, Stefano;BRUGNOLI, ROBERTO;FRATI, PAOLA;FINESCHI, VITTORIO;GIRARDI, Paolo;SANI, Gabriele
2017

Abstract

The use of performance and image enhancing drugs (PIEDs) is not uncommon in athletes and appears to be associated with several psychopathological disorders of unclear prevalence. In this multicenter, cross-sectional study, we aimed to evaluate the prevalence of body image disorders (BIDs) and eating disorders (EDs) in PIED-using athletes vs. PIED nonusers. We enrolled 84 consecutive professional and amateur athletes training in sport centers in Italy, who underwent semi-structured interviews (SCID-I, SCID-II) and completed the Body Image Concern Inventory (BICI) and the Sick, Control, One, Fat, Food Eating Disorder Screening Test (SCOFF). PIEDs were searched for in participants’ blood, urine, and hair. Of these, 18 (21.4%) used PIEDs, the most common being anabolic androgenic steroids, amphetamine-like substances, coffee and caffeine derivatives, synthetic cathinones, and ephedrine. PIED users and nonusers did not differ in socio-demographic characteristics, but differed in clinical and psychopathological features, with PIED users being characterized by higher physical activity levels, higher daily coffee and psychotropic medication use (e.g., benzodiazepines), more SCID diagnoses of psychiatric disorders, especially substance use disorder, body dysmorphic disorder (BDD), EDs, and general anxiety disorder, higher BICI scores (indicating higher risk of BDD), and higher SCOFF scores (suggesting higher risks for BIDs and EDs).
2017
athletes; body image disorders; eating disorders; performance and image enhancing drugs; psychopathology; sports; medicine (miscellaneous); psychology (all)
01 Pubblicazione su rivista::01a Articolo in rivista
Body Image and Eating Disorders are Common among Professional and Amateur Athletes Using Performance and Image Enhancing Drugs. A Cross-Sectional Study / Piacentino, Daria; Kotzalidis, Georgios D; Longo, Livia; Pavan, Antonio; Stivali, Luciano; Stivali, Guido; Ferracuti, Stefano; Brugnoli, Roberto; Frati, Paola; Fineschi, Vittorio; Girardi, Paolo; Sani, Gabriele. - In: JOURNAL OF PSYCHOACTIVE DRUGS. - ISSN 0279-1072. - STAMPA. - 49:5(2017), pp. 1-13. [10.1080/02791072.2017.1359708]
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11573/1000244
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