Real socialism had its source of legitimacy in the “October Revolution”. The promise of Communism was based on the realization of a fair society, which would have put an end to the exploitation of the working class by capitalists and smoothed out any class difference, leading to the highest standard of living for the “new communist man” characterized by abundance of material and cultural goods. Such promise means a centrally controlled economic policy that sets goals, resources and priorities through medium-term plans, covering all productive sectors. In this model, the sustainability issues would be lessened, at least in theory. First, the problem of national borders would be overcomed, because the model would hit a large geographic area; second, this model would lead to a centralized political governance, able to promote and support it. Theoretically, the use of planning would have allowed the weighing of environmental measures effects on the economic and social sectors. History shows not only a different truth, but also a cultural background completely divorced from the theoretical framework outlined, except for a relatively short period of important policy initiatives (1918-1924), influenced by innovative development ideas related to environmental protection, proposed by a group of scientists who had given birth to a movement for the protection of nature (Weiner 1999). Obviously, in the years immediately after the Second World War, nobody payed attention to environmental issues, neither in the West nor in Central and Eastern Europe, at least on a political and economical level, rather, the environment issue was seen as an obstacle to the economic growth. Consequently, attention to sustainable development was not, and could not be in the agenda of planners, even in a socialist key. However, when the ideas of anthropic degradation, exploitation of resources, the concept of a limit, beyond the pollution of the big cities, began to interest public opinion and governments in the West, such thing would not happen in countries with centrally planned economies (Senatore 2013). Although theoretically favourable to an integral development, real socialism focused primarily on industrialist policies, ignoring social measures and actions for the population. Therefore, according to these objectives of unlimited growth, the concept of limit could not find acceptance, as well as measures that would add the economic development to the environmental sustainability.
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|Titolo:||Environment, Real Socialism and Sustainability in Russia.|
|Data di pubblicazione:||2014|
|Appartiene alla tipologia:||02a Capitolo o Articolo|