Building Techniques of the Ancient Gandhara: the buddhist site of Tokar Data (Pakistan, Naijgram, Swāt valley). The research aims at analysing some buildings of the Buddhist site of Tokar Dara (I sec. A.C.), in the Swāt valley, the actually North-West Frontier of Pakistan near the Afghan, through the typological interpretation and the study in depth of their structural techniques. The architectural remains of the Buddhist stupa and monastery are spreading over a range of 228 m north and south, 206 m est and west. The site consists of a large stupa, the associated monastery, living quarters, assembly hall, and an aqueduct cave, two other stupas, badly damaged and several unidentified remains. The very articulate sequence of the different building phases is put in evidence through the analysis of the masonry and building techniques. The large stupa consists of a hemispherical dome, upper and lower drums resting on a square podium; the main stupa was surrounded by the votive stupas which have been completely destroyed by unauthorized diggers. Seven steps of a staircase in the middle lead to the top of the podium. The main stupa had originally four columns at the four corners of the beam of the square storey, which is indeed a peculiar feature. The exterior of the stupa is executed in diaper pattern originally covered by the coating of lime plaster. The drum of dome, which measures 10,67 m in diameter, is decorated with two cornices framed as usual by the vertical slabs of stone. The monastery is rectangular in plan, with its major axis running south-north. It has two entrances: one on the north leading to the main stupa and another on the south leading to an assembly hall. There are six domed cells, square in shape, which occupy each side of the complex. Some of the cells still reserved the vaulted roof. Near the corner of the monastery court, there are the high walls of a big hall probably used as an assembly hall for the Buddhist community. To the east the assembly hall, lie the remains of another ruined relic shrine enclosed by walls on three sides. The relic shrine depicts a square plinth with base moulding; it is ascended by flight of steps. It is built in large dressed slabs of stones and originally graced with Corinthian pilasters, traces of which can still be seen. We can identify different stone masonry during the different phases: rubble masonry, diaper masonry, semi-ashlar masonry and in the late phase double-semi-ashlar masonry.
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|Titolo:||Architettura del Gandhara: i complessi buddisti della valle dello Swat (Pakistan). Tipologie, tecniche costruttive, materiali e proposte di restauro.|
|Data di pubblicazione:||2006|
|Appartiene alla tipologia:||10e Altro prodotto architettonico|