After a description of the anatomical-functional organization of the human trigeminal system, this chapter discusses the diagnostic and therapeutic options for trigeminal neuralgia (TN). In about 15% of patients who present with the clinical picture of typical TN, this is secondary to a major neurological disease, i.e., benign tumors of the cerebellopontine angle or multiple sclerosis. Some clinical criteria that were used to distinguish between classic and symptomatic TN, such as age at onset, involvement of the ophthalmic division, and responsiveness to medical treatment, are no longer considered reliable. It is recommended that all patients undergo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or trigeminal reflex recording. Carbamazepine (CBZ) and oxcarbazepine (OXC) are the first-choice medical treatments. Although other drugs may be effective, these are indicated when the patient cannot reach the therapeutic dosage of CBZ/OXC because of adverse events. Patients unresponsive to CBZ/OXC should be made aware of the available surgical interventions. Surgical procedures (including percutaneous lesions to the ganglion/root, microvascular decompression (MVD) in the posterior fossa, and gamma knife radiosurgery) are extremely efficacious with relatively few complications: each procedure has some advantage and disadvantage with respect to the other. Only MVD is a non-destructive procedure. This chapter also describes management of glossopharyngeal neuralgia, which is often misdiagnosed, and some other chronic pain conditions mediated by the trigeminal system, such as ophthalmic postherpetic neuralgia (PHN). © 2011 Elsevier B.V.
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|Data di pubblicazione:||2010|
|Appartiene alla tipologia:||02a Capitolo o Articolo|