Architectural ontogeny and phylogeny of the “urban vertebra” It is interesting to notice, by analyzing the plan developed by Sergio Lenci for the project for which he has participated for the "ISES" competition for Low-Income Housing in 1965 (in conjunction with Alfred Lambertucci who handled the dwelling types), the presence of a premonitory symptom of the same "urban scale architecture" that Pietro Barucci had the opportunity and the ability to synthesize and systematize. A careful study of that project reveals that the above-mentioned site plan already contained almost all the elements of the insula of Laurentino 38, i.e. the bridge, lines, towers, and a two-level system for vehicular and pedestrian traffic circulation. In reality, with this design, the bridge is not an "equipped" one. It consists of a perforated "plateau" that passes on top of the road, making the whole project become an “urban architectural device.” This generates a “city effect” that is totally in line with what was later built on a larger scale in the Laurentino 38 housing district. It should be said immediately, however, that from 1959 to 1962 Pietro Barucci undertook, on behalf of the Roman Institute “Beni Stabili,” three phases of design. The first one was developed with Manfredi Nicoletti, immediately after the completion of the Mixed-Use-Development known as “Piazzale del Caravaggio” in Rome. This project, much admired by Leonardo Benevolent, would offer many sources of inspiration to the architectural design community and certainly also to Sergio Lenci, as it emerged from the proposal he entered several years later into the "ISES" competition. The "plateau" built in Piazzale del Caravaggio and the proposal of the Mixed-Use-Development in Turin of 1962, aim to create a piece of stratified city. They make use,of the volumes characteristic of the skyscraper office building type of the Phoenix-Rheinrohr, built in Düsseldorf in 1957, designed by Helmut Hentrich and Hubert Petschnigg. In the Project for the Mixed-Use-Development in Rome, dating to at least three years prior to the 1965 "Pampus plan" designed by Bakema and van den Broek, the idea of the “urban vertebra” was already present. That same idea used in the design for the expansion of Amsterdam, will become a spine. Here are the references: from Düsseldorf (the element), to Piazzale Caravaggio (the vertebrae), to Amsterdam (the spine in the shape of a “cobra” erect majestically to the sound of the magic Bakemian flute), then to the project which was entered into the ISES competition by Sergio Lenci and finally to the Laurentino 38 (an area developed in a non linear way, for lack of space, in which the “cobra” of Bakema is placed like in a basket, in a round shape). These “vertebrae” will at Laurentino become the “insula”, the feature for which Pietro Barucci will be remembered in the history of architecture. This shifting reality is made of a series of references that inspire and from which one is inspired. Design references should at least include the unbuilt “vertical city” of Ludwig Hilberseimer with its stratified circulation. Among the effects, we find the Mixed-Use-Development that John Portman has built in Atlanta and San Francisco in the '70s: the Peachtree Center and the Embarcadero Center (which can be easily compared with those of Piazzale Caravaggio in Rome as well as which sometimes sustain the qualities of the neighborhood the one in Turin). Following this brief review, the Bridges of Laurentino 38 shall be read as “bridles”, the reins that govern the unity of the whole neighborhood, bringing the concept of Barucci to an idea “post-Illuminism” in the footsteps of Boullee and Ledoux, intent on giving to the typology a morphological quality on an urban scale. In addition to what has already been mentioned, the ideals that you can breathe in, walking through it, also derive from the futurism of Antonio Sant'Elia, Mario Chiattone, Tullio Crali, Virgilio Marchi, from the constructivism of Chernikhov, El Lissitzky, Leonidov and from the rationalism of Gropius. Ultimately, they derive from a design composition logic headed by a strong DNA strongly linked to middle-Europe. This DNA is responsible for the placement of the building volumes in this area, of the pedestrian and automolbile circulation and of the built and open spaces. Ultimately, the responsibility is that of the “urban vertebra” which consist of five line buildings, one tower and one built-bridge. By following these rules, an "ontogeny that recapitulates the phylogeny of contemporary architecture", linked to the evolution of the city and to the history of the living quarters has been built. It is unthinkable that a town of 30,000 inhabitants (four times higher than the average size of Italian Municipalities) can be expected to function without a mini-mayor, and survive in a state of enforced isolation and few social advantages.
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|Titolo:||Mutazioni Laurentino 38 - Ontogenesi e filogenesi di un quartiere romano/Mutations Laurentino 38 - Ontogeny and phylogeny of a neighborhood in Rome. (prefazione/preface F. Purini, introduzione/introduction P. Barucci) Italian and English texts|
|Data di pubblicazione:||2011|
|Appartiene alla tipologia:||03a Saggio, Trattato Scientifico|