In this chapter some psychophysiological accounts of RST are reviewed mainly in terms of personality traits. Findings from many of these studies outline the importance of RST in physiological understanding of personality, including how individual differences in personality are reflected in behavior and cognition. However, there is little consensus over the optimal set of psychometric measures and there is no reason to choose between alternative scales, although questionnaires providing more direct measures of BIS/BAS sensitivities appear to be more promising. During the last thirty years, the RST has been revised a number of times and the complexity of individual differences in personality in terms of reinforcement sensitivity has been recently outlined (Corr 2004; McNaughton and Corr 2004). Recent psychophysiological findings highlight the importance of cognitive factors for an explanation of electrocortical and autonomic responses in terms of RST. However, the diversity of findings obtained suggests that, in spite of recent progress, research has still a long way to go for the development of a neuroscience of personality. It is too early to say whether the recent reformulation of Gray’s theory, including the ‘joint sub-systems hypothesis’, will improve the capacity to predict psychophysiological responses to punishment and reward signals.
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