The text aims to trace the path that led the Spanish Socialist Worker's Party (PSOE), prior to 1979 openly Marxist, to carry out neoliberal reforms in the context of European economic integration. The Party, which had been illegal during Francoism, had linked its opposition activity to the pro-European cause. It had also been a founding member of the Socialist International, of social-democratic and anti-communist standing. Until the end of the seventies these positions had been perfectly compatible with Marxist ideology, despite the change of leadership from Llopis to González and the absorption of the anti-capitalist People's Socialist Party (PSP). This scenario changed in 1979, once the first phase of the Transition to Democracy had ended, and against the background of the birth of neoliberalism. The young leader Felipe González made a radical strategic change, by convincing the Party Congress to renounce to Marxism. The preparation for the following elections was characterized by a streamlining of the ideological elements of the formation, in line with the "desideologización" and the "desencanto" proper to the Spanish Transition: the Party gathered around its leader, embracing the primary objectives of state modernization and European integration. The victory in the 1982 elections was therefore the beginning of a long series of economic and industrial reforms, necessary for entry into the European Economic Community. These initiatives have partially dismantled the Franco economy, through a decisive industrial reconversion that although initially creating high unemployment and discontent in the population, allowed the country to enter Europe in 1986 and to present itself to the world in its "annus mirabilis", 1992.
Europeanization and neoliberalism: Spanish socialism from Marxism to the nineteen-nineties / Giordano, Enrico. - (2022). ((Intervento presentato al convegno 18th conferencia of the History of European Integration Researchers’ Society tenutosi a Glasgow; United Kingdom.