The earth's crust is of great economic importance to humans how much, from the rocks that compose it, obtains building materials, ornamentals and minerals from which essential elements for industrial processes are obtained. Terrestrial matter is in a fixed and determined quantity. For this reason, the mineral resources present on the Earth are finite and exhaustible resources and their distribution is not homogeneous. A fundamental condition for the exploitation of a reservoir is that it is economically convenient. The parameters for evaluating its convenience are: the size of the reservoir, the mineral content, the location of the reservoir, which must be practicable and not too far from communication lines or markets. The value of these parameters is not fixed, but varies according to market needs and technological acquisitions. All economic activities and industrial sectors involve the use of mineral substances or energy resources. Many raw materials, around which the modern economy revolves, such as metals, rocks and industrial minerals, can be recovered and reused, thus reducing mining activity and its environmental impact, energy consumption and gaseous emissions from processes of treatment.
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