Construction sector turns out to be one of the most active fields in the experimentation and research of new materials and applications capable of responding to the current needs for efficiency, energy saving, and eco-sustainability. Driving by environmental regulations and consumers demand, eco-friendlier concrete materials are becoming a priority. Two possible ways are being explored to achieve these goals: Incorporate waste aggregates to replace natural aggregates or using recycled fillers as eco-efficient reinforcing agents. A lot of scrap materials and by-products (construction and demolition wastes, plastics, metals, ash, glass, mining wastes, fibers), have properties suitable for being incorporated into cementitious matrices, bringing valuable engineering functionalization to concrete as well as mitigating the adverse effects of waste disposal and depletion of natural materials. Implement new fiber-reinforced rebars (FRR) in substitution for steel. Ceramic-fiber reinforced composites (glass, basalt, aramid) provide superior corrosion resistance, excellent thermo-mechanical properties, and high strength-to-weight ratio than conventional materials. For rebar applications, they also represent “greener” solutions in terms of embodied energy than concrete and steel. Then, their use in civil infrastructure can improve innovation, increase productivity, enhance performance, and provide longer service life. The compatibility of these functionalizing materials with the cementitious matrices and the interfacial bond behavior was found to be crucial factors for the mechanical strength and durability performances of the resulting concrete composites. Functional coatings and surface engineering treatments (physical, chemical, or “hybrid”) on waste “aggregates” and FRR are being investigated to improve the interfacial affinity with cement, aiming at enhancing their full technological applicability in the concrete technology. In the selection of the compatibilizing treatment, the environmental impact of the process should also be strongly considered to avoid making the use of alternative materials in construction less virtuous. The Special Issue explores recent impressive studies on treatments and surface modifications applied to recycled/waste materials and FRR for their use in cement-matrix composites. The topics of interest include but are not limited to: Coatings and surface treatments on waste/recycled “aggregates” and FRR for cement-matrix composites Physical-chemical analysis of coatings and surfaces Effect of surface modifications of waste/recycled “aggregates” and FRR on cement-matrix composite properties Computational modeling and experimental assessment of surfaces and interfaces in cement-matrix composites Environmental performances of coating and surface treatments
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