The significantly higher incidence of COVID-19 on mortality and morbidity observed in the northern Italian regions as compared to the southern ones, could be partly explained by geographic variations of the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency. The present opinion paper discusses this hypothesis. The immunomodulatory effects of vitamin D have been widely established and its benefits on viral and bacterial replication have been attributed to its ability to modulate gene expression by activating the vitamin D receptor in many target cells, including immune cells, and by promoting the expression of antimicrobial peptides such as cathelicidins and beta-defensins, which are also endowed with antiviral and immunomodulatory properties. Recently, following the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic situation, many studies have shown a high prevalence of very low levels of vitamin D in patients with severe manifestations of the disease, and that high dose vitamin D administration appeared able to favourably modify the evolution of the infection. Although these studies, mainly based on cross- sectional analyses and small-scale randomized clinical studies, could not provide a definitive proof of a cause-effect relationship, it is possible to suggest that hypovitaminosis D might be considered “guilty by association” as one of the factors able to worsen the pandemic spread and its clinical impact.

Vitamin D in the COVID 19 prevention and treatment: emerging evidence / D’Avolio, A.; Isaia, G; Caprio, M; Fabbri, A; Falcone, S; Ferretti, E; Gardini, As; Infante, M; Maggiorotti, M; Migliaccio, S; Minisola, G; Morello, M; Ortore, V; Spera, G; Tafaro, L. - In: PHARMADVANCES. - 3:2(2021), pp. 350-356. [10.36118/pharmadvances.2021.01]

Vitamin D in the COVID 19 prevention and treatment: emerging evidence

Caprio, M;Ferretti, E;Migliaccio, S;Tafaro, L
2021

Abstract

The significantly higher incidence of COVID-19 on mortality and morbidity observed in the northern Italian regions as compared to the southern ones, could be partly explained by geographic variations of the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency. The present opinion paper discusses this hypothesis. The immunomodulatory effects of vitamin D have been widely established and its benefits on viral and bacterial replication have been attributed to its ability to modulate gene expression by activating the vitamin D receptor in many target cells, including immune cells, and by promoting the expression of antimicrobial peptides such as cathelicidins and beta-defensins, which are also endowed with antiviral and immunomodulatory properties. Recently, following the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic situation, many studies have shown a high prevalence of very low levels of vitamin D in patients with severe manifestations of the disease, and that high dose vitamin D administration appeared able to favourably modify the evolution of the infection. Although these studies, mainly based on cross- sectional analyses and small-scale randomized clinical studies, could not provide a definitive proof of a cause-effect relationship, it is possible to suggest that hypovitaminosis D might be considered “guilty by association” as one of the factors able to worsen the pandemic spread and its clinical impact.
File allegati a questo prodotto
File Dimensione Formato  
DAvolio_Vitamin-D_2021.pdf

accesso aperto

Tipologia: Versione editoriale (versione pubblicata con il layout dell'editore)
Licenza: Tutti i diritti riservati (All rights reserved)
Dimensione 606.5 kB
Formato Adobe PDF
606.5 kB Adobe PDF Visualizza/Apri PDF

I documenti in IRIS sono protetti da copyright e tutti i diritti sono riservati, salvo diversa indicazione.

Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11573/1559025
Citazioni
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.pmc??? ND
  • Scopus ND
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.isi??? ND
social impact